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I N S T 

^^^^^G T O N 







Extending the Frontiers of Science 


bove: This image shows photomicrographs of two Drosophila testes. To identify molecules that regulate stem 
cells, the Matunis lab at the Department of Embryology genetically alters the expression of candidate 
signaling molecules in the testis and examines any corresponding change in the number of stem cells. 
The left testis is a wild-type control with just a few stem cells at the apical end. In the right testis, JAK- 
STAT signaling has been overinduced, resulting in the production of thousands of cells with stem-cell 
characteristics; these appear as light purple. This result suggests that JAK-STAT signaling instructs 
stem-cell fate, rather than maintaining cell viability. (Image courtesy Erika Matunis, Carnegie's 
Department of Embryology.) 

Below: This is an image of the galactic center as seen from the Southern Hemisphere. It was taken in the 
near infrared by the Two Micron All Sky Survey. The survey is a joint project of the University of 
Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology. 
It is funded by NASA and the National Science Foundation. (Image courtesy E. Kopan, IPAC.) 

Year Book 99/00 

* M 


July 1, Ip99 

June 30, 2000 





ihe Lamegie institution oj Washington 
was incorporated with these words in 19 OL 
by its founder, Andrew Carnegie. Since 
then, the institution has remained true to 
its mission. At five research departments 
across the country, the scientific staff and 
a constantly changing roster of students, 
postdoctoral fellows, and visiting investiga 
tors tackle fundamental questions on the 
frontiers of biology, earth sciences, and 

Department of Embryology 

I 1 5 West University Parkway 
Baltimore, MD 21210-3301 

Department of Plant Biology 

260 Panama St. 
Stanford, CA 94305-4101 

Geophysical Laboratory 

525 1 Broad Branch Rd., N.W. 
Washington, DC 200 1 5- 1 305 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

524 1 Broad Branch Rd., N.W. 
Washington, DC 200 1 5- 1 305 

The Carnegie Observatories 

8 1 3 Santa Barbara St. 
Pasadena, CA 9 1 101-1292 

Las Campanas Observatory 

Casilla 601 

La Serena, Chile 

Office of Administration 

1530 P St., N.W. 
Washington, DC 20005 

ISSN 0069-066X 

Design by Hasten Design, Washington, DC 
Printing by Mount Vernon Printing, Landover, MD 
January 2001 


The President's Commentary 

Losses, Gains, Honors 

Contributions, Grants, and Private Gifts 

First Light and CASE 

Geophysical Laboratory 

Department of Plant Biology 

Department of Embryology 

The Observatories 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

Extradepartmental and Administrative 

Financial Statements 

Index of Names 

A supplemental electronic version of the 
Year Book is accessible via the Internet at 
www. Carnegiel restitution, orglyearbook. html. 

The electronic version includes individual 
essays by Carnegie scientists in addition to 
the material in this print publication. 






Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902-1904 
Robert S. Woodward, 1904-1920 
John C. Merriam, 1921-1938 
Vannevar Bush, 1939-1955 
Caryl P. Haskms, 1956-1971 
Philip H. Abelson, 1971-1978 
James D. Ebert, 1978-1987 
Edward E. David, Jr. (Acting President, 


Alexander Agassiz, / 904- 1 905 
Robert O. Anderson, 1976-1983 
Lord Ashby of Brandon, 1967-1974 
J. Paul Austin, 1976-1978 
George G. Baldwin, 1925-1927 
Thomas Barbour, 1934-1946 
James F. Bell, 1935-1961 
John S. Billings, 1902-1913 
Robert Woods Bliss, 1936-1962 
Amor/ H. Bradford, 1959-1972 
Lindsay Bradford, 1940-1958 
Omar N. Bradley, 1948-1969 
Lewis M. Branscomb, 1973-1990 t 
Roberts. Brookings, 1910-1929 
James E. Burke, 1989-1993 
Vannevar Bush, 1958-1971 
John L Cadwalader, 1903-1914 
William W. Campbell, 1929-1938 
John J. Carty, 1916-1932 
Whitefoord R. Cole, 1925-1934 
John T. Connor, 1975-1980 
Frederic A. Delano, 1927-1949 
Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903-1923 
William E. Dodge, 1902-1903 
Gerald M. Edelman, 1980-1987 
Charles P. Fenner, 1914-1924 
Michael Ference, Jr., 1968-1980 
Homer L. Ferguson, 1927-1952 
Simon Flexner, 1 9 10-1914 
W. Cameron Forbes, 1920-1955 
James Forrestal, 1948-1949 
William N. Frew, 1902-1915 
Lyman J. Gage, 1902-1912 
WalterS. Gifford, 1931-1966 

Carl J. Gilbert, 1962-1983 
Cass Gilbert, 1924-1934 
Frederick H. Gillett, 1924-1935 
Daniel C, Gilman, 1902-1908 
Hanna H. Gray, 1974-1978 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, 1952-1984 
William C. Greenough, 1975-1989 
Patrick E. Haggerty, 1974-1975 
John Hay, 1902-1905 
Barklie McKee Henry, 1949-1966 
Myron T. He trick, 1915-1929 
Abram S. Hewitt, 1902-1903 
Henry L Higginson, 1902-1919 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902-1909 
Henry Hitchcock, 1902 
Herbert Hoover, 1920-1949 
William Wirt Howe, 1903-1909 
Charles L Hutchinson, 1902-1904 
Walter A. Jessup, 1938-1944 
Frank B. Jewett, 1933-1949 
George F. Jewett, Jr., 1983-1987 
Antonia Ax:son Johnson, 1 980- i 994 
William F. Kieschnick, 1985-1991 
Samuel P. Langley, 1904-1906 
Kenneth G. Langone, 1993-1994 
Ernest O. Lawrence, 1 944-1 958 
Charles A. Lindbergh, 1934-1939 
William Lindsay, 1902-1909 
Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914-1924 
Alfred L Loomis, 1934-1973 
Robert A. Lovett, 1948-1971 
Seth Low, 1902-1916 
Wayne MacVeagh, 1902-1907 
William McChesney Martin, 1967-198. 
Keith S. McHugh, 1950-1974 
Andrew W. Mellon, 1924-1937 
John C. Merriam, 1921-1938 
J. Irwin Miller, 1988-1991 
Margaret Carnegie Miller, 1955-1967 
Roswell Miller, 1933-1955 
Darius O. Mills, 1902-1909 
S. Weir Mitchell, 1902-1914 
Andrew J. Montague, 1907-1935 
Henry S. Morgan, 1936-1978 
William W. Morrow, 1902-1929 
SeeleyG. Mudd, 1940-1968 
Franklin D. Murphy, 1978-1985 
William I, Myers, 1948-1976 

Garrison Norton, 1960-1974 
Paul F. Oreffice, 1988-1993 
William Church Osborn, 1927-1934 
Walter H. Page, 1971-1979 
James Parmelee, 1 9 17-1 93 1 
William Barclay Parsons, 1907-1932 
Stewart Paton, 1916-1942 
Robert N. Pennoyer, 1968-1989 
George W. Pepper, 19 14-19 19 
John J. Pershing, 1930-1943 
Henning W. Prentis, Jr., 1942-1959 
Henry S. Pritchett, 1906-1936 
Gordon S. Rentschler, 1946-1948 
Sally K. Ride, 1989-1994 
David Rockefeller, 1952-1956 
Elihu Root, 1902-1937 
Elihu Root, Jr., 1937-1967 
Julius Rosenwald, 1929-1931 
William M. Roth, 1968-1979 
William W. Rubey, 1962-1974 
Martin A. Ryerson, 1908-1928 
Howard A. Schneiderman, 1988-1990 
Henry R. Shepley, 1937-1962 
Theobald Smith, 1914-1934 
John C. Spooner, 1902-1907 
William Benson Storey, 1924-1939 
Richard P. Strong, 1934-1948 
Charles P. Taft, 1936-1975 
William H. Taft, 1906-1915 
William S.Thayer, 1929-1932 
JuanT. Trippe, 1944-1981 
James W. Wadsworth, 1932-1952 
Charles D. Walcott, 1902-1927 
Frederic C Walcott, i 93 i -1 948 
Henry P. Walcott, 1910-1924 
Lewis H. Weed, 1935-1952 
William H. Welch, 1906-1934 
GunnarWessman, 1984-1987 
Andrew D. White, 1902-1916 
Edward D. White, 1902-1903 
Henry White, 1913-1927 
James N. White, 1956-1979 
George W. Wickersham, 1909-1936 
Robert E. Wilson, 1953-1964 
Robert S. Woodward, 1 905- i 924 
Carroll D. Wright, 1902-1908 



Thomas N. Urban, Chairman 

William I. M. Turner, Jr., Vice-Chairman 

David Greenewalt, Secretary 

Philip H. Abelson 

Euan Baird 

Daniel N. Belin 

William T. Coleman, Jr. 

Tom Cori 

John F. Crawford 

Edward E. David, Jr., Emeritus 

John Diebold 

James D. Ebert 

W. Gary Ernst 

Sandra M. Faber 

Bruce W. Ferguson 

Michael E. Gellert 

Robert G. Goelet 

William T. Golden, Senior Trustee 

Caryl P. Haskins, Emeritus 

William R. Hearst III 

Richard E. Heckert, Emeritus 

William R. Hewlett, Emeritus 

Kazuo Inamori 

Suzanne Nora Johnson 

Gerald D. Laubach, Senior Trustee 

John D. Macomber, Senior Trustee 

Steven L. McKnight 

Burton J. McMurtry 

Jaylee Mead 

Richard A. Meserve 

Richard S. Perkins, Emeritus 

Frank Press, Senior Trustee 

William J. Rutter 

Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Emeritus 

Frank Stanton, Emeritus 

Christopher T. S. Stone 

David F. Swensen 

Charles H. Townes, Emeritus 

Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., Senior Trustee 


Maxine Frank Singer 



Augustus Oemler, Jr. The Crawford H. Greenewalt Chair, The Observatories 

Wesley T. Huntress, Jr., Geophysical Laboratory 

Sean C. Solomon, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

Christopher Somerville, Department of Plant Biology 

Allan C. Spradling, Department of Embryology 

John J. Lively, Administration and Finance 

Susanne Garvey, External Affairs 


page 6 YEAR BOOK pp~00 fe 


v ' ; --' 



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-?*?. 1 







The President's Commentar 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 page 7 

"The position of the Institution in world science has altered in the seventy-six years 

that have elapsed since it was founded; yet the underlying philosophy remains unchanged: 

• to seek out the innovator, to act as a catalyst, and to provide initial support 

to highly promising but 'high risk' ideas." 

James D. Erert, Carnegie Year Book 77/78 

Qontemplating Carnegie's centennial in 2002 is 
both inspiring and intimidating. It is inspiring 
because of the extraordinary scientific achieve- 
ments of the past century and the present vitality 
of the five departments. It is intimidating because 
our present actions will influence our successors' 
ability to be similarly inspired one hundred years 
from now. During the past year, we began to plan 
a variety of events to mark the centennial year. 
Five authors are writing histories of the current 
departments. At the administration building in 
Washington, an informative and celebratory 
exhibition will display the institution's achieve- 
ments, philosophy, history, and aspirations; an 
illustrated volume reflecting the exhibition will 
also appear. We will, as befits a historically 
important institution, organize the proper 
cataloguing and storage of our archives. But 
most significant and faithful to the institution's 
traditions is the dream to mark the centennial by 
initiating one or more new scientific directions. 

These plans will engage us for the next two years. 
Already they have stimulated a fresh examination 
of present activities. At the core of these programs 
is Andrew Carnegie's injunction "to discover the 
exceptional man in every department of study... and 
enable him to make the work for which he seems 
specially designed his life work." This statement is 

almost a mantra for the institution. It is repeated 
regularly in some form or other in these yearly 
essays, as it was by President Ebert in the quota- 
tion at the beginning of this one. We do in truth 
place our confidence in the vision and talent of 
individuals. While they may choose to participate 
in transient teams, the institution itself does not 
dictate team efforts. Indeed, the institution 
dictates very little concerning the research pro- 
grams. It assumes that an essential component of 
scientific talent — perhaps the single most impor- 
tant component — is the vision to choose, from 
within the ever-evolving scientific questions, 
significant and feasible research plans. Reliance on 
such talent is why the interests of the five current 
departments, each of whose history spans most of 
the 20 th century, have been constantly renewed. 
Identification and recruitment of such talent is the 
responsibility of those exceptional people who are 
the department directors. Unlike many research 
institutions, where department chairs are held on 
rotating appointments of three or five years, 
Carnegie directors are specifically appointed to 
their positions and typically remain in their posts 
for as long as 20 years. Frequently, they are the 
catalysts for change within the departments 
through inspiration and recruitment of Staff 
Members. The Carnegie mantra extends to 
leadership as well as to research. 

Left: Over the last century, Carnegie has pioneered research in a broad range of disciplines. The five current departments, Plant 
Biology, the Observatories, Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM), the Geophysical Laboratory (GL), and the Department of Embryology, 
owe their current vitality to the achievements of the past. 

Plant Biology started out as the Desert Laboratory in 1903 in Tucson, Arizona (shown here, top, in 191 I). In 1904, the Mount 
Wilson Observatory was established, marking the beginnings of the Observatories (first image, second row). Also that year, Louis A. 
Bauer became the first director of DTM. He is photographed here in 1911 doing fieldwork in Colombo, Ceylon (second image, second 
row). In 1907 the Geophysical Lab opened its doors. Its first director, Arthur L. Day, and a colleague are shown here (third row) with 
a carbon arc and resistance furnace. Lastly, this 1921 photograph shows the laboratory where embryos were modeled at the 
Department of Embryology (bottom). The board authorized that department in 1913. (Desert Laboratory photo courtesy of the 
Arizona Historical Society.) 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 


The current departmental directors and Carnegie president 
Maxine Singer are shown here at Las Campanas in November 
1999. From left: Chris Somerville (Plant Biology), Sean 
Solomon (Terrestrial Magnetism), Maxine Singer (president), 
Miguel Roth (Las Campanas Observatory), Wes Huntress 
(Geophysical Laboratory), Allan Spradling (Embryology), and 
Gus Oemler (Observatories). 

For many years, the institution has relied on 
individuals to maintain its unique role within the 
scientific enterprise. In the last year book, I dis- 
cussed this philosophy in the context of the grow- 
ing participation of Carnegie scientists in large 
projects that often require cooperative groups of 
colleagues here and at other institutions. I con- 
cluded that if the research is original and excellent, 
and provides an opportunity for the Carnegie 
scientist to develop her or his own ideas, it is con- 
sistent with our traditions and goals. I also pointed 
out that much new science demands innovative 
and complex technology beyond the means of 
individual organizations. Consortia of institutions 
or the federal government must provide the neces- 
sary resources if such work is to be done. Carnegie 
scientists must have access to such technology, but 
at the same time, we must be attentive to preserv- 
ing our scientists' independence if original and 
excellent research contributions are to be sustained. 

Long-Term Support for 
Carnegie Science 

A unique attitude and organizational structure 
cannot, however, assure the independence of Staff 
Members without some measure of stable, long- 

term funding. In earlier times, the institution 
eschewed federal grant programs and operated 
almost entirely on its endowment. In recent 
decades, two concepts have guided the institution's 
ability to attain this goal: hold the number of 
Staff Members constant, and limit dependence 
on federal funds. These two notions are of course 
related. By limiting our size, our endowment can 
provide a greater proportion of the needs and 
thus limit the requirement for federal funds. 
In contrast, other research institutions have 
increased their size and breadth largely through 
federal grants. 

Vannevar Bush, the fourth president of the 
institution, was also the architect of the scheme 
for federal funding of basic research that was 
introduced soon after World War II and flourishes 
still today. 1 The plan grew out of Bush's experi- 
ences as the organizer of research to support the 
war effort. Speed was essential if science and 
technology were to produce useful devices in time , 
to contribute to victory. Bush recognized that the 
most talented scientists, physicians, and engineers 
were in universities and corporations, not in 
the military or other federal agencies. With few 

Bush, V., Science — The Endless Frontier, Introduction, 1945. Reprinted by the 
National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1 990. 


exceptions, such as the Manhattan Project, scien- 
tists carrying out essential projects worked in their 
home institutions with funding from the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development, which Bush 
headed. This mechanism was efficient with respect 
to the scientists' time and access to facilities and 
equipment. When, after the war, Bush wrote a 
plan for the founding of a National Science 
Foundation, it incorporated this successful design. 
The government would, through fellowships 
and grants, serve the national interest by training 
new scientists and engineers and generating new 
knowledge at the "publicly and privately supported 
colleges, universities, and research institutes 
[that] are the centers of basic research [and] the 
wellsprings of knowledge and understanding." 
Bush's principles were adopted by most of the 
federal science programs. 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO jj page p 

The First Era of Federal Funding 

Only a few institutions hesitated, and relatively 
briefly, to enhance their research programs with 
federal support. Ironically, the Carnegie 
Institution resisted for decades, although Bush 
knew soon after becoming president in 1939 that 
there were serious deficiencies in institutional 
income. His solution to the problem, explicated in 
his first annual report, was "terminations and 
taperings" of departments. An additional termina- 
tion of the Department of Genetics at Cold Spring 
Harbor was made in the 1960s by President Caryl 
Haskins. However, the funding problem contin- 
ued. By the mid-1970s, the endowment's value 
had substantially decreased, largely as a conse- 
quence of the general deterioration of the stock 
market and changes in portfolio management 
strategy (Fig. 1). Additionally, a high inflation 
rate, the need to sustain commitments to the staff, 

■i ;•:• # 


500,000,000 •• 




100,000,000 - - 

f & s # ^ & J ^ £ f ^ / f ^ <fi f f f <fi s # s 4 

■■Market Value -a- 1954 Endowment Inflated -♦-Endowment plus Gifts Inflated 

»C* \" V" 

Inflation = CPI (1954 - 1966) or Higher Education Price Index (1967 - 1999) 

Fig. I . This graph shows the endowment growth versus inflation. 


page 10 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

and capital expenditures for the development of 
Las Campanas contributed to a disturbing gap 
between a sustainable level of endowment spend- 
ing and expenditures. 

During the five years prior to 1977, the institution 
had, on average, obtained annually only $0.4 mil- 
lion from the government (Fig. 2). Reporting to 
the trustees at their annual meeting in January 
1977, President Philip Abelson proposed "to move 
cautiously using more federal funds to replace 
Carnegie funds." 2 He saw "hazards" in doing so, 
including the potential erosion of the unique char- 
acter and flexibility of the institution; the tempta- 
tion to undertake fashionable work that would be 
readily funded rather than innovative, long-term 
efforts; the burden of time and effort needed to 
prepare detailed applications; and a weakened 
attachment of the scientists to the institution. He 

suggested several policies designed to avoid these 
hazards: "First, no part of professional staff salaries 
should come from grants. Second, Staff Members 
should not be required to prepare grant applica- 
tions and should be able to carry on meritorious 
long-range programs regardless of whether federal 
funds were available." The inflow of federal funds 
began almost immediately (Fig. 2.). 

Bolstering the Endowment 

Abelson was near the end of his presidency when 
he introduced these changes. Only a few years 
later, the new president, James Ebert, wrote in the 
year book: "Our current income falls substantially 
short of what is needed to support these [five] 
departments even in the modest, frequently austere 
style to which they have become accustomed. 
But... an overemphasis on austerity can fetter 
research, especially in those fields in which a 
rapidly evolving technology places a high premium 
on equipment." 3 Ebert rejected solutions depen- 
dent on further "terminations and taperings" as 
inconsistent with a significant level of scientific 
contributions and because of how "insidious 
would be the effect of continuing attrition on 
the Institution's remaining staff members." He 
proposed a long-term program to double the 
endowment and, although he worried about the 
same hazards that Abelson had described, an effort 
to obtain between 40 and 50 percent of annual 
expenditures from public and private sources. 
He also concluded that the "rich and treasured" 
institutional tradition of providing all salaries 
from Carnegie funds "must now be breached." 

Ebert's goal of doubling the value of the endow- 
ment was achieved during his presidency. Since 
then, it has doubled again. In 1998, its purchasing 
power was slightly higher than in 1954 (uncorrected 
for new gifts to the endowment) (Fig. 1). 

' Abelson, P., Financial Status of the Carnegie Institution, Report to the 7 9 lh Annual 
Meeting of the Trustees, Washington, D.C., January 28, 1977. 

1 Ebert, J. D., Report of the President, Carnegie Year Book 77/78, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1979. 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO I page II 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Total Expenses 



tf 4" & ^ f f & & & & & & -^ ^ # f 

Fig. 2. Total expenses are indicated here. The numbers are actual dollars and are not normalized for inflation. 
Expenditures represent the sum of operating and equipment expenses; capital outlays are not included. For some 
years, the total funds expended is larger than the sum of Carnegie and federal funds because of private grants. Prior 
to 1999, some funds included in the private fund category were actually federal funds provided through subcontracts 
with partners at other research institutions. 

Grants: The Norm of the Day 

Today, although there is no formal requirement, 
all Staff Members apply for grants, and a portion 
of some Staff Members' salaries come from grants. 
Salaries are determined by the directors and com- 
mitted by the institution, taking into account only 
seniority and scientific merit, not grant income. 
Opportunities for grants differ widely from one 
field to another, as does the monetary value of 
grants. It is therefore inappropriate to distinguish 
between equally productive Staff Members on 
the basis of grants obtained. Some projects can be 
initiated or carried out without external funds, 
but not if expensive special equipment, materials, 
or travel is required. Department directors can 
dedicate limited parts of their budgeted money for 
such projects, or they may recommend that the 
president provide special funds. 

The Importance of Private Gifts 

In 1977, Abelson also pointed out that "over most 
of its existence the Institution [had] made only a 
nominal effort to seek additional private funds," 
and mainly "from individuals connected with the 
Institution." That situation has also changed. 
Soon after 1977, additions to the endowment were 
received for the first time (Fig. 1). In the last 
decade, private individuals and foundations have 
been generous in their donations for special fund- 
raising campaigns and for ongoing departmental 
needs. Most of these funds were designated for 
specific purposes. The rate of addition to the 
endowment has also increased, largely because 
of trustees' gifts (compare the two curves in 
Fig. 1). 


page 12 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

When opportunities arise for proposals to private 
sources, there is often a difficult choice between 
soliciting funds for present use or for the endow- 
ment. For example, spending a million dollars 
can seem more attractive than putting that sum 
into the endowment and realizing annually only 
5 percent of its value for expenses. (Like most 
other research institutions, Carnegie generally 
aims to spend about 5 percent of its endowment's 
total value each year, a policy designed to maintain 
the purchasing power over many decades.) 
The trouble with that perspective was cogently 
illustrated by trustee David Swensen in a book 
published this year. 4 He pointed out that in 1910, 
the institution's endowment was about the same 
as that of Harvard University. Yet Harvard's 
endowment is now around $19 billion and 
Carnegie's is just approaching $500 million. The 
difference, according to Swensen, is explained by 
how much more Harvard has received in gifts to 
its endowment since then compared with 
Carnegie. We should strive to enhance Carnegie's 
endowment as much as possible. Nevertheless, 
if Carnegie were to direct all gifts toward the 
endowment, it would pay a large price in lost 
opportunity for new research. Itwill always be 
necessary to strike a balance between the needs 
of today and the needs of tomorrow. 

Several industrial corporations have made generous 
donations to Carnegie in the last decade, both for 
the endowment and for special projects. Although 
many research universities accept major corporate 
funds in support of work defined to varying 
extents by the donor, Carnegie could probably 
not accept the associated restrictions and still 
maintain its unique goals and traditions. Carnegie 
scientists have accepted very few minor grants 
designated for purposes of interest to a corporate 
donor, and only when the work coincided with the 
scientist's own intentions. 

4 Swensen, D. F., Pioneering Portfolio Management. An Unconventional Approach to 
Institutional Investment, The Free Press, New York, 2000. 

Polling the Staff about Federal Grants 

In the recent past, approximately one-third of the 
annual operating budget (including equipment) 
has come from federal grants; the actual percent- 
age varies from department to department and 
from year to year (Fig. 2). The only way to assess 
whether this has significantly affected our goals 
and traditions is to ask the Staff Members. 

About a third of the Staff Members responded to 
my request for information. Some answered my 
questions, and some answered questions I did 
not ask. I inquired, "What percent of submitted 
proposals are successful?" Remarkably, more than 
half of the respondents had success rates of 90 to 
100 percent, although they did not always receive 
as much money as they had requested. Only a few 
had success rates between 50 and 70 percent, and 
those were in fields in which federal grant pro- 
grams are poorly funded. Estimates of how much 
time was spent in preparing proposals and filing 
the necessary reports ran from 5 to 30 percent of 
the scientists' time. Some of the variation stems 
from policies at different agencies; if the grants 
tend to be small, then several proposals are 
required to provide sufficient funds. The 30 per- 
cent figure would have been some cause for alarm, 
except that it came from one individual and 
included "planning, preparation, proposal writing, 
periodic and final reports, management, and 
accounting" for one of the institution's largest 
efforts. Staff Members also spend significant 
time reviewing proposals that others in their field 
have sent to the agencies, in part because "if I am 
funded by the system I need to contribute to the 
system." The responding Staff Members were 
essentially unanimous in saying that they do not 
propose projects just because they are fashionable 
with granting agencies. However, several stated 
that they choose not to undertake the considerable 
effort involved in preparing a proposal if they think 
the likelihood of funding is small; for such projects 
institutional funds are critical. 



YEAR BOOK pp—OO I page JJ 

I also asked, "To what extent do you feel overbur- 
dened by the pursuit of grants?" Only a few felt 
generally overburdened, although several admitted 
that concentrated periods of working on proposals 
can lead to such feelings and to the sense that it 
would be better to spend that time doing research. 
One scientist, who has been very successful in 
obtaining grants, admitted that he considered the 
pursuit of grants "the major headache of being in 
science. During the last six months of each grant 
cycle I always feel an overwhelming sense of 
impending doom because of the possibility that I 
may have to fire a bunch of people on short notice 
if my grant is cut." 

Younger Staff Members generally apply for federal 
grants without hesitation. They were trained in 
universities where federal funding is the norm. 
They see benefits in the discipline imposed by 
the grant-writing process and in the critical peer 
reviews that proposals receive. And, should 
they ever consider moving to a position outside 
Carnegie, they rightfully believe that most research 
institutions will evaluate their record of successful 
grant acquisition before making an offer. One 
Staff Member indeed worried about the excessive 
use of this criterion in evaluating the quality of an 

Geophysical Laboratory Staff Member George Cody (right) 
led the effort to obtain grants to purchase the nuclear mag- 
netic resonance, or NMR, spectrometer (shown at far left). 
Substantial support came from grants from the National 
Science Foundation and the W. M. Keck Foundation. 
Biogeochemists, cosmochemists, crystal lographers, and 
organic geochemists are among the researchers who use 
the NMR spectrometer. Cody is shown with former 
Carnegie Fellow Jay Brandes (left). 

individual's research. That may well be the case 
in some institutions, but in the directors' reviews 
of each Staff Member at five-year intervals that 
question is never raised. 

The Balance among Funding Sources 

One of the directors probably spoke for many as 
well as for me when, agreeing with Abelson's 
and Ebert's conclusions he wrote, "There is no 
alternative to spending larger amounts of money 
than are available from our endowment per year 
if we want to remain a first-class institution." 
Additional endowment of about $250 million 
would be needed to replace the approximately 
$12.5 million of federal funds Carnegie used in 
this fiscal year (1999-2000), and achieving that is 
highly improbable. There will always be a need to 
maintain a balance between federal grants, private 
fund-raising, and Carnegie funds. Enormous 
advantages accrue from the institution's ability to 
support new, high-risk initiatives and to assure 
its Staff Members' compensation. It is evident 
from the reports of visiting committees, from con- 
versations with Staff Members and postdoctoral 
fellows, and from the collegial spirit in the depart- 
ments that the hazards of increased dependence 
on federal grants have been largely avoided. If, as 
part of the centennial celebration, a new scientific 
effort is initiated, it should be launched in the 
image of the current departments with a new 
endowment sufficient to provide for from half to 
two-thirds of its anticipated operating budget. 
Even now in the 21 st century, the Carnegie mantra 
should remain our guide. 

— Maxine F. Singer 
November 2000 


page 14 I YEAR BOOK pp—QO 


Neva Abelson, wife of former Carnegie president and current trustee Philip 
Abelson, died on September 26, 2000, at the age of 89. She graduated with a bach- 
elor's degree in chemistry from what is now Washington State University. In 1942, 
she received an M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University medical school. Long 
affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania medical school, her research included 
work on blood antibodies. 

Edna Haskins, wife of former Carnegie president and trustee emeritus Caryl P. 
Haskins, died on January 30, 2000, at the age of 88. She received her undergraduate 
and Ph.D. degrees in physical chemistry from Kings College, Durham University 
(U.K.), and her M.S. from Radcliffe College (U.S.). She was a member of the 
AAAS, the American Chemical Society, and the American Association of 
University Women. 

Neva Abelson 

ill, biological photographer at the Department of Embryology from 
1949 to 1986, died last winter (1999). At Carnegie, he produced high-quality pho- 
tographs of embryos, and was an important contributor to the study of anatomical 

Edna Haskins 

)anny Lee was killed in an automobile accident on January 17, 1999. He was a former Johns Hopkins 
undergraduate and recipient of the Provost's award for his senior thesis research while working in the 
laboratory of Embryology Staff Member Marnie Halpern. Lee was in his first year of a M.D./Ph.D. 
program at Washington University. A fund to support undergraduate research in the biomedical sciences 
has been established at Johns 'Hopkins in his honor. 

r illick, an assistant professor at Stanford University and a former postdoc at the Observatories 
(1991-1995), was killed by a car in June in Englewood, New Jersey. 


ston, director of the Carnegie Observatories from 1981 to 1986, retired 
in August 1999. Preston came to the Observatories for a one-year appointment in 
1959 as a postdoctoral fellow. He returned in 1968 as a Staff Member, a position he 
continued to hold after his directorship ended in 1986. Preston plans to continue 
his work at Pasadena on metal-poor stars and stellar evolution. 

inn, a Staff Member at the Observatories and a former director, retired 
in December. Weymann came to the Observatories in 1986 from the University of 
Arizona, where he was a professor. Between 1970 and 1975 he was also the director 
of the Steward Observatory there. Weymann will continue his research on quasars, 
faint galaxies, and the evolution of the universe, among other subjects. 


YEAR BOOK pp—OO page I J 

David Virgo retired from the Geophysical Laboratory on June 30. He came to GL in 1971, at a time that 
coincided with the return of the Apollo lunar samples. Virgo focused his attention on the crystal chemistry 
of the lunar samples as a means to unravel the early igneous history of the Moon. His later petrological work 
led to important applications for understanding the H 2 budget in the interiors of Earth and the other 
terrestrial planets. 

Susan Vasquez, assistant to the president, retired in December 1999. Susan was with Carnegie for 33 years 
and worked with five presidents. 


Daniel Belin was elected to the board of trustees at the December 1999 meeting. 
Belin, currently a principal at Belin Consulting, is a founding partner of the Los 
Angeles law firm Belin Rawlings 8cBadal. He is a trustee of the Ahmanson 
Foundation and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, and serves on a variety of other 
boards and visiting committees. 

Former Embryology Staff Member Steven McKnight was elected to the board at the 
May 2000 meeting. McKnight came to Embryology as a staff associate in 1979 and 
left as a Staff Member in 1992 to cofound Tularik, Inc. At present, he is the chair- 
man of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Texas Southwestern 
Medical Center, where he holds the Sam G. Winstead and F. Andrew Bell 
Distinguished Chair and the Distinguished Chair in Basic Biomedical Research. 

Daniel Belin 

Vilhelm is the newest staff associate at Embryology. Wilhelm arrived from the 
University of California, San Francisco, and plans to study the mechanism of mRNA 
localization during Drosophila oogenesis. 

The Arabidopsis thaliana Information Resource (TAIR) lab at the Deparment of 
Plant Biology welcomed Seung Rhee as director, Eva HyaSa as head curator, and 
Lukas Mueller, Margarita Hernandez-Garcia, and Leonore Reiser as curators. 

Steven McKnight 

The CASE staff continues to grow. Julie Edmonds has been appointed associate director, and Grej 
is the new administrator. 

Linda Schweizer was named assistant director of External Affairs at the Observatories. 


Linda Feinberg moved from the CASE office to the position of publications coordinator and researcher for 
the Office of External Affairs at P Street. 

Sharon Bassin has been named the Assistant to the President. Sharon came to Carnegie in 1989 as Maxine 
Singer's secretary. She succeeds Susan Vasquez, who retired in December 1999. 


page l6 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 


Trustee Frank Press was appointed an Ordinary Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences 
at the Vatican. 

Trustee William Rutter received the 2000 Bower Award in Business Leadership from the Franklin 
Institute for his contributions to the biotechnology industry. 

On April 30, Carnegie president Maxine Singer was inducted into the Washington, D.C., Hall of Fame 
for "outstanding scientific accomplishments and deep concern for the societal responsibility of scientists in 
Washington, D.C." In November 1999, she spoke at the Weizmann Institute of Science's Jubilee Science 
Symposium in honor of its 50th anniversary. 

Ves Huntress, director of the Geophysical Laboratory (GL), was the recipient of the 1999 Masursky 
Award. This honor is given by the American Astronomical Society for meritorious service in the field of 
planetary sciences. Dr. Huntress was also elected to the board of directors of the Association of Universities 
for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) for a three-year term. In April 2000, he received the Federal 
Design Achievement Award for the Mars Pathfinder mission. This award is given in recognition of 
contributions to excellence in the design of projects for the federal government. He was also elected an 
academician in the International Academy of Astronautics. 

Sean Solomon, director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM), was elected a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences on May 2. Election to membership recognizes "distinguished and continuing 
achievements in original research." He was one of 60 new members chosen. 

Sandage, Staff Astronomer Emeritus of the Carnegie Observatories, received the newly established 
Cosmology Prize of the Peter Gruber Foundation on November 9, 2000. The prize recognizes individuals 
who have significantly advanced our understanding of the universe. Sandage earned the award in recogni- 
tion of his half-century of leadership "in our observational quest to understand the stars, galaxies, and the 

Observatories Staff Member Wendy Freedman was nominated to the AURA board of directors. 

Wetherill (DTM) received the J. Lawrence Smith Medal and Prize of the National Academy 
of Sciences. The award recognizes recent original and meritorious investigations in meteoritics. 

DTM Staff Members Alan Boss and Paul Silver were elected Fellows of the American Geophysical 

DTM's Erik Hauri received the H. G. Houtermans Medal of the European 
Association of Geochemistry. The medal is given every few years to an outstanding 
young scientist for his or her overall contribution to geochemistry. Hauri also 
received the James B. Macelwane Medal from the American Geophysical Union. 
The medal "recognizes significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by an 
outstanding young scientist (36 years old or younger)." 


YEAR BOOK pp—OO I page 1/ 

Patrick Kelly, research intern at DTM working with John Graham and Dan Kelson 
on the colors and magnitudes of galaxies, was one of 40 finalists selected from among 
1,517 applicants in the Intel Science Talent Search. This research also won him the 
Astronomical League's National Young Astronomer Award and significant coverage 
in the September 2000 issue of Sky & Telescope. He conducted his research using data 
from the 1-meter Swope telescope at Las Campanas. Kelly is a freshman at Harvard 
University majoring in astrophysics. 

GL's Hatten Yoder received the University of Chicago's Professional Achievement 
Award. This award, which is given to alumni, recognizes Yoder's distinguished record 
of professional accomplishments and leadership. 

GL Staff Member Y ngwei Fei received the 1999 Mineralogical Society of America award. Charles Prewitt 
served as the citationist. 

oug Koshland (Embryology) was elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Embryology's Yixian Zheng won a nationwide competition to become a Howard Hughes Medical Institute 


page l8 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 


s Disco 

The Carnegie Institution received gifts and 
grants from the following corporations, 
foundations, individuals, and government 
agencies during the period July I, 1999, to 
June 30, 2000. 


$1,000 to $9,999 

Howard C. and Eleanora K. 

Robert L DeHaan 



Louis E. and Nahid 


The Charlotte and Gary Ernst 

Gordon and Alice Davis 

De Lanney 


John Diebold 

John and Ruth Doak 

Paul and Annetta Himmelfarb 

Jo Ann Eder 

Bruce R. Doe 

$100,000 to $999,999 


Sandra and Andrew Faber 

Thomas S. Duffy 

Newmont Gold Company 

Paul N. Kokulis 

Margaret Durso 


Nina and Ivan Selin Family 

John D. Macomber 

Andrew Fire 

Howard Hughes Medical 


Marlow and Herrad Marrs 

Dorothy Ruth Fischer 


Richard A. and Martha R. 

Marilyn L Fogel 

The G. Harold and Leila Y. 


Gladys Fuller 

Mathers Charitable 

Under $1,000 

Alvin E. and Honey W. 

Esra Galun 



Domenico Gellera 

The Starr Foundation 

Lee and Louis Kuhn 

Evelyn Stefansson Nef 

M. Charles and Mary Gilbert 

The Thomas N. Urban, Jr. 


Frank Press 

Kirsten and Oliver 

and Mary Bright Urban 

Robert J. and Vera C Rubin 

Gildersleeve, Jr. 


Eugenia A. and Robert C 

Joseph S. Gots 

The G Unger Vetlesen 

Seamans, Jr. 

Richard and Irene Grill 



Dan and Maxine Singer 

Philip Grimley 

Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 

Allan Spradling 

Necip Guven 


Christopher Stone 

Helen M. Habermann 

$100,000 to $999,999 

David and Susan Swensen 
Scott B. Tollefsen 

William and Dorothy Hagar 
William K. Hart 

$10,000 to $99,999 


W.John R. and Mendelle 

H. Lawrence Heifer 

Burton J. and Deedee 

Tourover Woodley 

Satoshi Hoshina 

Abbott Laboratories Fund 


Mary L Hoyer 

Fundacion Andes 

Robert jastrow 

Ball Aerospace & 

Under $1,000 

Mark E. and Peggy A. Kidwell 

Technologies Corporation 

$10,000 to $99,999 

Olavi Kouvo 

Burroughs Wellcome Fund 

Jagannadham Akella 

Yasuhiro Kudoh 

Carnegie Corporation of 

Philip H. Abelson 

Paul A. Armond, Jr. 

Ikuo Kushiro 

New York 

Bruce Alberts 

Horace W. Babcock 

Otto C and Ruth Landman 

Cancer Research Fund of the 


Manuel N. Bass 

Harold and Wei Soong Lee 

Damon Runyon-Walter 

Euan Baird 

Walter Beach 

Allan and Melissa Leffler 

Wmchell Foundation 

Bent G. and Renee Laya 

Bradley F. and Virginia W. 

Harlan Lewis 

Freddie Mac Foundation 



Steven and Nancy L'Hernault 

Golden Family Foundation 

Tom Cori 

Giuseppe and L. Elizabeth 

Elizabeth Little 

David Greenewalt Charitable 

James and Alma Ebert 


Felix J. Lockman 


Michael E. Gellert 

Daniel and Debrah 

Eric Long 

Richard W. Higgins 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. 


Chester B. and Barbara C. 



Jeanette and Walter Brown 

Martin, Jr. 

Human Genome Sciences, Inc. 

David Greenewalt 

Philip S. and Adele S. Brown 

James M. Mattinson 

Suzanne and David Johnson 

Robert and Margaret Hazen 

Rosemary V. Buden 

Sheila McCormick 


William R. Hearst III 

Gordon Burley 

Susan Gerbi Mcllwain 

W. K. Kellogg Foundation 

Richard E. Heckert 

Donald M. Burt 

Jack E. Myers 

Life Sciences Research 

Martha Hoering 

John A. R. Caldwell 

Catherine A. Neill 


Lois Severini and Enrique 

Dana Carroll 

T. S. Okada 

The John Merck Fund 

Foster Gittes 

King-Chuen Chow 

Lucy C. Paschal 

The Pew Scholars Program 

John and Annette Coleman 

George Pepper 

The Deborah Rose 

Harriet B. Creighton 

Douglas and Anne ReVelle 


$1,000 to $9,999 

John R. and Muriel H. Cronin 

Philippe Reymond 

The Helen Hay Whitney 

Peter and Sarah Davis 

Carl R. Robbins 


Donald D. and Linda W. 

Igor B. and Keiko Ozato 

Douglas and Karen Rumble 



Maarten and Corrie Schmidt 

John F. Crawford 

Vincent De Feo 

Martin and Marilyn Seitz 

Toward Tomorrow's Discoveries 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page ip 

Peter and Susan Seligmann 
Nobumichi Shimizu 
Edwin and Virginia Shook 
Erich and Lis Steiner 
David Stewart 
Linda L. Stryker 
Masatoshi Takeichi 
Ian Thompson 
Heinz Tiedemann 
Elwood O. and Doris E. Titus 
Charles H. Townes 
William B. Upholt 
Larry N. Vanderhoef 
Richard J. Walker 
Zhou Wang and Xiaoyan Cai 
James A. Weinman 
Fredrick P. Woodson 
Kenzo Yagi 
Charles Yanofsky 
Violet K. Young 


More than $1,000,000 

Department of Energy 
National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration 
National Institutes of Health 
National Science Foundation 

$100,000 to $999,999 

Space Telescope Science 

$10,000 to $99,999 

Western Regional Center for 
the National Institute for 
Global Environmental 


$100,000 to $999,999 

The Jet Propulsion 

International Research 

Management LLC 
Smithsonian Institution 

$10,000 to $99,999 

American Cancer Society 
Biosphere Two Center, Inc. 
Electric Power Research 


PAGE 20 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

v, S*£i^ 

It is more important 

to pave the way for 

the child to want to 

know, than to put him 

or her on a diet of facts 

-Rachel Carson 

* * 

First Light and The Carnegie Academy 
for Science Education 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO I page 21 


Science for the City's Children 

EJithin months of becoming president of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Dr. Maxine 
Singer opened the doors to neighborhood children 
by founding the First Light Saturday science 
school. Since 1989, the school has invited children 
from Washington, D.C.'s public elementary 
schools to learn about science by doing science. 
Every Saturday morning at 9:30, about 30 third- 
to sixth-grade students arrive at the school to 
engage in activities such as building wind racers, 
analyzing the building's tap water, or starting a 
mineral collection. After lunch, which is provided 
by the program, the children go on a field trip, 
which may be a hike along the Potomac River, 
a visit to the new earth science exhibit at the 
Museum of Natural History, or a tour of a nearby 
Carnegie laboratory. Many children stay in the 
program for several years, and some of the stu- 
dents from those first years are now in college. 
Over the past decade, we have watched students 
develop their ability to ask questions, investigate 
their questions scientifically, arrive at answers, and 
generate new questions. We believe that some of 
our students will become professional scientists. 
More important, we expect that all First Light 
students will grow up with an understanding of 
the scientific approach to answering questions and 
solving problems. 

Learning Science Is an Active Process 

During the early years of First Light some parents, 
teachers, and one principal noticed that the stu- 
dents who were in the program were doing better 
academically than they had before. This observa- 
tion was the impetus to start the Carnegie 

First Light students go on weekly field trips, such as this one 
to nearby Chesapeake Bay. 

Academy for Science Education, CASE. In 
December 1993, CASE was established with a 
five-year National Science Foundation grant 
to strengthen the teaching of science and mathe- 
matics in the public elementary schools of 
Washington, D.C. Since the first CASE Summer 
Science Institute in 1994, we have brought more 
than 550 teachers from over 50 schools to the 
Carnegie Institution for intensive professional 
development in these subjects. In 1999 we formed 
a separate mathematics institute. Both programs 
immerse teachers in content, either science or 
mathematics, with two goals: to substantially 
increase their knowledge of the subject, and 
to give them experience with a variety of 
instructional strategies. 


Left: This display appears at the entrance to the CASE and First Light laboratories and classrooms. 


page 22 I YEAR BOOK pp—QO 


%»^ ' 

\i .. ffi^jflHMfc, « 


f, ^^B jfvi ^^.^r A 


1^. ^^""^^i 




fe J 

ougn, nowever, nas tn 
immercially made produ 
The key is to cook the mixture until it pulls away 
from the side of the pan. 

Roller Coasters]^ 

CASE summer institute teachers learn about the basic 
concepts of force and motion with a real-world example- 
roller coasters. 

Teachers in elementary schools are required to 
teach a broad range of topics. In the case of science 
and mathematics, instructors are typically poorly 
prepared. At CASE we heard from the teachers 
themselves about the kind of professional develop- 
ment they need to improve in these areas. From , 
their comments, and from our observations, we 
built the summer institutes on the basis of national 
standards. These standards include the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science's 
(AAAS) Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the 
National Academy of Sciences' National Science 
Education Standards, and the National Council 
of Teachers of Mathematics' Curriculum and 
Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. 
These standards establish the content teachers 
must teach at specific grade levels and provide 
guidance on how best to teach it. However, the 
standards do not constitute a curriculum; the cur- 
riculum is the course work used by the teachers to 
present the standards to the students. At CASE 
we have changed the curriculum over the years as 
we have learned what works and what does not. 
Our current curriculum is organized around a gen- 
eral theme that is approached through a series of 
questions, which are investigated through activities. 

For example, the science institute is organized 
around four themes, each defined by an organizing 
question. The first week's theme is the nature of 
science. CASE teachers begin learning how to 
approach the topic through the organizing ques- 
tion: How do we make good decisions about 

which product is best? They test features of many 
products we use in our daily lives, including the 
absorbency and strength of paper towels, the size 
of detergent bubbles, and the contents of a super- 
absorbent diaper. Through their activities the 
teachers learn what makes a scientific test fair and 
accurate, and how product tests are used to 
develop new products. The activities also help 
them see immediately the connection between 
mathematics and measurement, and understand 
concepts such as variables, data analysis, graphing, 
and statistics. Throughout the rest of the insti- 
tute's session the organizing questions center on 
the earth, life, and physical sciences. 

Improving Science Education Is Part of 
Systemic Education Reform 

To improve student achievement in science and 
mathematics, the Carnegie Institution recently 
joined with the AAAS and the D.C. public 
schools in a partnership called DC ACTS. The 
premise of the program is that student achieve- 
ment will increase when teachers know what the 
students must learn at each grade, develop year- 
long instructional plans for science and mathemat- 
ics, and have the necessary materials and equip- 
ment. The National Science Foundation funded 
DC ACTS for three years beginning in September 
2000. Over this three-year period we must 
make significant reforms in 2 high schools, 4 
middle/junior high schools, and 15 elementary 
schools. Our effectiveness will be measured by 
whether we can increase the Stanford 9 mathe- 
matics achievement test scores, and increase the 
number of students passing Algebra 1 and 
advanced-placement courses in science and mathe- 
matics. If we can meet these goals, we will have 
successfully developed a program that can bring 
about reform across the whole school system. 

The CASE staff is working with the 15 elemen- 
tary schools across the city to provide professional 
development through the summer institutes, grad- 
uate-level courses, and workshops. At 8 of these 
schools, groups of teachers are working closely 
with a CASE Staff Member to develop yearlong 
instructional plans. Additionally, with funds from 
the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Carnegie 

is purchasing equipment for instruction such 
as stereoscopes, balances, thermometers, and 
graduated cylinders. 

The Key Is in the Individuals 

Each year at CASE we identify talented teachers 
who enjoy teaching science and mathematics and 
can function as leaders. We now have a group of 
these "mentor teachers" as part of the CASE 
summer teaching staff. Many of them are also the 
DC ACTS facilitators for their schools; they are 
responsible for ensuring that reform takes root. 
These educators are essential to our success. In the 
short time CASE has been in existence we have 
dealt with four school superintendents. Since the 
average tenure of a superintendent in an urban 
school system is only about three years, our 
approach is to work closely with teachers and prin- 
cipals since they, along with the students, are the 
people who remain in the school system the longest. 

Although the DC ACTS program is off to a good 
start, only time will tell if we will succeed in our 
efforts to become the catalyst for changing a low- 
performing school system into one that we can be 
proud of. Our eventual goal is for the D.C. school 
system to exemplify the Carnegie way — achieving 
excellence, supporting exceptional individuals, 
promoting creativity, and managing with fiscal 

— Ines Lucia Cifuentes 


page 24 I YEAR BOOK pp—QO 

Geophysical Laboratory 


YEAR BOOK pp— 00 page 2$ 


Exploring the Frontiers of Science at 
the Geophysical Laboratory 

J he common thread running through the science 
at the Geophysical Laboratory (GL) is exploring 
the fundamental physics and chemistry of the 
Earth and the other planets. Our laboratory exper- 
iments, field studies, and theoretical investiga- 
tions — all at the very, frontiers of our disciplines — 
have led us to new insights and major discoveries. 
And these have helped us better understand how 
our planet functions, and how it has evolved geo- 
physically, geochemically, and geobiologically. 

While pursuing our objectives, we have developed 
new techniques and instrumentation. These 
achievements, coupled with our expanding knowl- 
edge, have opened up entirely new scientific fields. 
This is particularly true in the high-pressure area, 
where the physics and chemistry of materials are 
observed under the extreme conditions that exist 
at planetary centers. The evolution of the static 
diamond cell to reach core pressures, for instance, 
has resulted in a surprising new dimension in 
materials science (Fig. 1). 

Another new area at the lab has emerged from 
our work in geochemistry and biogeochemistry. 
Termed "astrobiology" by space scientists and 
"geobiology" by earth scientists, this field has blos- 
somed with recent discoveries showing that life on 
Earth is robust and pervasive. It extends through- 
out the upper regions of the planet and thrives in 
extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, and 
acidity. Microbes have even been found living on 
the tiniest quantities of water, and they can use 


Hydrogen ga 

Interplanetary space 
■Atmosphere at 300 miles 

Center of. Tup ttsr 
■ Center of Sun 

. Center of 
white dwarf 

Center of 
neutron star 

10 s 

io- 6 
io- 4 -i 

10 : 


10 4 
10 6 
10 s 

-Best mechanical pump vacuum 

-Water vap or at trip) e point 

Atmospheric pressure 
(sea level) 

■ -Deepest ocean 


Fig. I . There are three principal variables in the science of 
materials: pressure, temperature, and composition. 
Temperature and composition are the two variables most 
commonly used in laboratories by physicists and chemists to 
change materials. But in the universe, pressure actually varies 
by more than 60 orders of magnitude. It is less than one 
atom per cubic centimeter in intergalactic space and 
increases unimaginably in the center of neutron stars, where 
the entire mass of the Sun is compressed into a body smaller 
than the Earth. 

just about any source of chemical energy. These 
findings have led GL scientists to explore the 
possibility that life may have originated at 
hydrothermal vents at the ocean bottom, and 
to look at how past life might be preserved as 
chemical fossils in ancient rocks. 

The following pages highlight some of the exciting 
results in these areas and others over the past year. 

Left: This is a structure model for a new iron-sulfur compound (Fe 3 S), synthesized at a pressure of 21 GPa. Fe 3 S has a tetragonal 
cell and is the most iron-rich iron sulfide found so far in the Fe-FeS system. The formation of this iron sulfide at high pressure has 
important implications for understanding the mineralogy of sulfur-bearing planetary cores, including those of Earth, Mars, Venus, 
and Mercury. 


page 26 I YEAR BOOK pp—QO 

The New Universe of High Pressure 

Recent advances in high-pressure diamond-cell 
techniques have led to the discovery of new 
phenomena in simple molecular systems. With 
increasing pressure, materials undergo a series 
of transitions in which the molecules strongly 
interact and exhibit an unusual combination of 
quantum and classical properties. New electrical 
measurements show that hydrogen, the lightest 
and most abundant gas in the universe, remains an 
insulating material in the solid state to pressures of 
at least 230 gigapascals (GPa) (34 million pounds 
per square inch) at room temperature and below. 
Nitrogen, the principal gas in the Earth's atmos- 
phere, is a solid, non-molecular semiconductor at 
these pressures (Fig. 2). The noble gas xenon 
transforms into a metal near 140 GPa, and 
sulfur becomes a superconductor near 100 GPa, 
persisting in this state to at least 230 GPa. 

In addition to diamond cells, high-pressure 
research necessitates small samples — often no 
larger than the head of a pin. With such tiny 
objects, very bright light sources are needed to 
make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. 
Various forms of x-ray spectroscopy are key to 
probing molecular structure, and very bright x-ray 
sources can only be produced by large accelerators. 
We have, therefore, taken advantage of the federal 
investment in synchrotron photon beam sources. 
These include the second-generation National 
Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and the third- 
generation Advanced Photon Source (APS) at 
Argonne National Laboratory. GL has access to 
two high-pressure synchrotron x-ray beamlines at 
the NSLS and has constructed a new facility fully 
dedicated to high-pressure synchrotron infrared 
spectroscopy there. The combined x-ray and 
infrared installation permits systematic high-pres- 
sure measurements, which can address problems 
ranging from dense hydrogen and related planetary 
materials to new technological materials. 

GL scientists are also leading the new High- 
Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) 
at the APS. The aim of this project is to design, 
construct, operate, and maintain a sector that will 
be fully dedicated to high-pressure science with 


Fig. 2. These are photomicrographs of a sample of nitrogen at 
70 gigapascals (GPa) (top panel) and 193 GPa (bottom panel) 
at 80 K. At these low temperatures, nitrogen transitions 
abruptly at 190 GPa to a nonmolecular solid. The sample is 
characterized by contraction and darkening and the loss of 
vibrational modes characteristic of molecular nitrogen. The 
platinum microelectrodes for measuring electrical conductiv- 
ity of the sample are visible. 

capabilities that will exceed those at NSLS by 
several orders of magnitude. 

Analyzing Earths Core in the Laboratory 

Earth's deep interior controls large-scale processes 
on our planet. The deepest part, the core, is the 
most extreme terrestrial environment. Pressures 
there are over 300 GPa (3 million atmospheres, or 
nearly 45 million pounds per square inch), and 
temperatures perhaps approaching those of parts 
of the Sun (over 6000 K). This is a very difficult 
regime for experiments, yet the Earth's core is an 
important boundary condition for the behavior of 
the entire globe. Understanding core chemistry is 
complicated by the fact that the behavior of mate- 
rials under extreme conditions differs markedly 
from their behavior in the near-surface environ- 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page 2J 

ment. However, new diffraction and spectroscopic 
techniques at high pressures now allow us to 
investigate the fundamental chemical properties 
deep inside the Earth. 

In one investigation, we obtained data on the 
partitioning of sulfur (S), oxygen (O), silicon (Si), 
nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) between core-forming 
iron alloy and mantle silicate minerals, and the 
partitioning of carbon (C) and S between solid 
and liquid iron (Fe). The data indicate that the 
estimated abundances of Ni and Co in the Earth's 
upper mantle are best explained by equilibrium 
core-mantle differentiation in a global deep- 
magma ocean on the primitive Earth. 

The core's density deficit suggests the presence of 
a light element (or elements) such as sulfur, which 
is cosmochemically abundant. Therefore, melting 
relations and mineralogy in this system are funda- 
mentally important for understanding the thermal 
and physical state of a sulfur-bearing iron core. 
From our investigations, we have found three new 
high-pressure Fe-S compounds: Fe 3 S 2 , Fe 3 S, and 
Fe 2 S at pressures up to 21 GPa and at tempera- 
tures between 950°C and 1400°C. GL researchers 
have also developed new x-ray techniques that 
provide direct experimental information on the 
rheology of iron at the core's intense pressures. 
This latter work will help to identify the active slip 
systems that contribute to the deformation of iron 
in the inner core. 

Carnegie researchers are also using theoretical 
methods to better understand the origin of the 
behavior of materials at high pressures. These 
methods help scientists make predictions where 
data are not yet available and help test and under- 
stand new experimental processes. One area of 
close interaction between theory and experiment is 
in studying the elasticity of iron under conditions 
of the Earth's inner core. New computations of 
the elasticity of Fe at the pressures and tempera- 
tures there (over 3 million atmospheres and 
6000 K) agree well with seismological and free 
oscillation studies. 

Studying the Martian Interior from Afar 

It was once believed that three terrestrial planets — 
Venus, Earth, and Mars — would be found to have 
similar bulk compositions. However, before the 
1997 Mars Pathfinder mission, the moment of 
inertia factor was known only for Earth; it is 
consistent with a bulk nonvolatile element 
composition equivalent to a CI chondritic class 
meteorite. The large uncertainty regarding Mars 
left room for many composition models. With 
the Pathfinder mission, scientists were able to 
determine a more accurate value for Mars, and 
work at GL has since shown that it is inconsistent 
with that of Earth's. This is a significant finding 
since future planetary accretion models will have 
to account for these planetary variations. 

Water: Earth's Primary Sculptor 

Water is the single most powerful agent for geo- 
logic change on our planet, and it may play an 
important role on Mars, Europa, and elsewhere. 
Whether it is found in Mississippi Delta sediment 
or in the chondrules from the parent bodies of 
meteorites, water is a key ingredient for geochemi- 
cal change. It causes chemical reactions in rocks, 
altering their ratios of oxygen and hydrogen 
isotopes. Seawater, rainwater, glacier ice, ground- 
water, and extraterrestrial water each have a 
distinctive isotope ratio, which allows us to 
determine where the water originated. 

Stable-isotope geochemistry has proved to be a 
powerful research tool to study water-rock interac- 
tions. We have been perfecting in situ microanaly- 
sis by developing methods for lasers to analyze 
oxygen isotopes in silicate and oxide minerals and 
sulfur isotopes in sulfide minerals. 

We have been analyzing oxygen isotopes in high- 
pressure minerals from a Cambrian continental 
collision zone in northern Kazakhstan. These 
unusual samples contain diamonds in a matrix of 
metamorphosed sediments. The results will help 
us understand how surface rocks can be subducted 


page 28 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

to depths of 125 kilometers or more and return to 
Earth's surface without losing their definitive 
characteristics. With our Chinese colleagues, we 
have also been investigating rocks from a Triassic 
collisional terrain in eastern China. These rocks 
have an interesting cold-climate signature inferred 
from depleted 18 and depleted deuterium iso- 
topes. Recent age determinations on zircon, 
combined with 18 0/ 16 analyses, demonstrate 
that a cold climate existed 750 million years ago, 
coincident with glacial deposits of the "Snowball 
Earth" era. 

Looking for Life in All the Right Places 

Stable-isotope analysis can unravel other condi- 
tions of the past, too. The elements C, N, H, O, 
and S are excellent tracers of biological reactions 
that manifest themselves in organic and inorganic 
materials. Long after an organism has perished, its 
isotopic composition can tell us how it interacted 
with its environment. Carbon isotopes can identify 
food sources, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes can 
trace drinking water, and nitrogen isotopes can 
establish predator-prey relationships. Sulfur iso- 

Stalactite from 

sample PMB , 


2 mm 

(llchik and Rumble, 2001 , GSA Special Paper 

Fig. 3. This cross section of a pencil-size pyrite (FeS 2 ) stalac- 
tite was found in a deposit from ancient warm springs on the 
shore of the extinct Lake Creede in Colorado. The boxed 
numbers show an enormous range in sulfur isotope values, 
from -18 to +70 per mil. Microbes convert oxidized sulfur in 
solution to reduced sulfur, which precipitates in the presence 
of iron as the mineral pyrite. The microbes preferentially 
metabolize the lightest isotope of sulfur, 32 S, and thus produce 
large depletions in 34 S in the precipitated pyrite (negative val- 
ues). Although all traces of the microbes have been obliter- 
ated, the pyrite-fractionated sulfur isotopes remain as a per- 
manent record of their former presence. 

topes are especially useful in investigations of 
"extremophiles" — microbes that inhabit sites 
toxic to humans. 

We are beginning to study sulfur isotopes in 
sulfide minerals to see if they contain evidence 
indicating living organisms. To gain chemical 
energy, terrestrial extremophiles use enzymes to 
reduce or oxidize aqueous sulfur. In the course of 
the redox process, the oxidized sulfur species are 
enriched in 34 S and reduced species are depleted 
in 34 S. If there is iron in the system, the reduced 
sulfur precipitates as the insoluble mineral pyrite. 
Thus, under favorable circumstances pyrite may 
carry a virtually indestructible record of life 
processes. Experiments at GL will begin by ana- 
lyzing all four sulfur isotopes in living microbial 
colonies. The data may yield isotope systematics 
indicating specific metabolic pathways. These can 
then be applied to the analyses of ancient sulfide 
deposits on Earth and in extraterrestrial samples. 

Microorganisms are primarily responsible for 
degrading biochemical structures. Organic matter 
that enters the fossil record, therefore, contains 
bacterial "signatures" — molecular and isotopic 
biomarkers — from the decomposition process. 
To investigate these remnants, GL scientists are 
adapting techniques from modern protein and car- 
bohydrate biochemistry to look for biochemical 
fossils. Thus far, we have characterized the iso- 
topic and molecular nature of a diverse pool of 
microorganisms. We are now able to distinguish 
lipids in the fossil record synthesized under 
anaerobic processes from those produced in the 
presence of molecular oxygen. We are also investi- 
gating the isotopic fractionations in amino acids 
that are related to biochemical and metabolic 
processes. Here we have found novel biosynthetic 
pathways in species of Archaea. A key goal is to 
develop sensitive techniques for finding bacterial 
amino acids in waters and geothermal fluids at 
hydro thermal vents. 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO I page 2p 

Fig. 4. Marilyn Fogel is shown collecting samples in the fringe 
mangrove zone at Twin Cayes, Belize. 

Once Upon a Time, Before Biology, 
There Was a Chemical Earth. . . 

A half-century of research, much of it inspired by 
the work of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey, has 
focused on prebiotic chemistry in near-surface 
conditions in the absence of rocks and minerals. 
The idea that life may have originated at the ocean 
bottom in the presence of minerals at high-pres- 
sure, high-temperature hydrothermal vents is 
more recent, however. The discoveries of modern 
diverse ecosystems at these sites make such 
environments attractive as possible geochemical 
incubators for biology on the early Earth. 

It is a natural outgrowth of the lab's expertise and 
instrumentation to look at this exciting new area. 
Our goal here is to establish a seamless connection 
between the young geochemical world and the 
subsequent biochemical world. Currently we are 
investigating how, under extreme pressure, the hot 

crustal minerals and gases from the vents provide 
the chemical resources to support a diverse local 
biological community. By analyzing these organ- 
isms, GL scientists hope to discover the earliest 
chemical mechanisms used in biology and to 
develop laboratory methods to understand the evo- 
lution from prebiotic chemistry to primitive life. 

One of our GL Staff Members, John Frantz, actu- 
ally travels to high-pressure hydrothermal vents at 
the bottom of the ocean. John has developed an 
instrument that measures the hydrogen fugacity of 
high-temperature fluids. This is a measure of the 
fluid's oxidation state, which has direct bearing on 
the microbial activity within the hydrothermal 
structures. His device uses a gold-palladium semi- 
permeable membrane, allowing us for the first 
time to measure hydrogen fugacities at tempera- 
tures to below 50°C. In September 2000, Frantz, 
as part of the crew of the submersible AL VIN, 
deployed the instrument at the Juan de Fuca Ridge 
(Fig. 5). He returned to GL with some unique 
data from inside a deep-ocean vent. 

In conjunction with these field studies, we have 
been investigating aqueous organic chemistry in 
the lab at high temperatures and pressures in the 
presence of transition metal sulfides known to 

Fig. 5. This picture was taken from the ALVIN submersible 
during John Frantz's dive on the Juan de Fuca Plate. The 
hydrogen fugacity measurement sensor is being deployed 
into an active hydrothermal vent. 




exist in modern hydro thermal vent systems. These 
sulfides can promote geochemical reactions that 
mimic key metabolic reactions in living organisms 
where enzymes are used as catalysts. One example 
is the carbonyl insertion reaction. It is integral to 
the acetyl CoA synthase enzyme complex in 
chemoauto trophic microorganisms. Although this 
project is relatively new, we have identified poten- 
tial geochemical pathways that may have served as 
the most primitive metabolic chemistry. Important 
advances in this research include demonstrating 
hydrothermal reduction of nitrogen gas to ammo- 
nia in the presence of iron oxides and sulfides; 
identifying a novel synthetic pathway for citric 
acid synthesis; forming apparently catalytic 
organometallic phases and the attendant synthesis 
of alpha keto acids; enhancing aldol reactions 
involving alpha keto acids on the surfaces of pyrite; 
and finding a potential autocatalytic cycle that 
might serve as a model for the most primitive 
metabolism. Among the most exciting findings to 
date is that under hydrothermal conditions, several 
reactions in the citric acid metabolic cycle proceed 
without enzymes. We have not yet, however, 
achieved a self-sustained, autocatalytic system. 

Transition metal sulfides can promote carbon- 
addition reactions, which are important in 
synthesizing larger organic molecules. All of the 
sulfides studied promote Fischer-Tropsch-type 
reactions. They lengthen hydrocarbon chains 
using, in this case, formic acid as the extra carbon 
source. In addition, Co and Ni sulfides (and to a 
lesser extent Fe sulfides) mediate carbonylation 
reactions, which produce carboxylic acids from 
thiols. Sulfide minerals can be reactants as well as 
catalysts in these processes. We have observed the 
synthesis of numerous additional organic and 
organometallic compounds, including organic 
di- and trisulfides, methyl-thiol, and transition 
metal carbonyls (Fig. 6). 

2.5 r-r-r 


2 - 

1.5 - 




< 1 

i i ti 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 

Fe 2 (SR) ? (CO) ( 


(CO) 3 

R R 

200 MPa 

50 MPa 

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 


Fig. 6. Large quantities of organometallic compounds are 
synthesized at high temperature and pressure using a 
mineral (FeS), an organic molecule (nonyl thiol), and a source 
of carbon monoxide (formic acid). These organometallic 
phases have useful catalytic properties. For example, they 
promote double carbonyl insertions critical for the synthesis 
of the key metabolic intermediates pyruvic acid and alpha 
ketoglutarate. They are also structurally similar to a key 
active center found in the biological enzyme hydrogenase, 
suggesting a possible connection between the geochemical 
and earliest biological worlds. 

It is possible that suites of carbonylated 
organometallic compounds could serve the role 
of primitive enzymes. A landmark experiment in 
this area yielded particularly exciting results: we 
observed the synthesis of pyruvic acid, which is a 
key molecular entry point to the citric acid cycle. 
This result provides further evidence for the 
complex prebiotic chemistry that must have 
occurred in the Earth's Archaean oceans. And it 
may be a key stepping-stone to our understanding 
other mechanisms that were involved in the transi- 
tion from a chemical world to the biological world 
we know today. 

— Wesley T. Huntress, Jr. 



YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page $1 

Fig. 7. Members of the Geophysical Laboratory, September 2000. First row (from left): Joe Boyd, Holger Helwig, Jie Li, 
David George, Paul Meeder, Lawrence Patrick, Pablo Esparza, Jingzhu Hu, Sue Schmidt. Second row: Jennifer and 
Yingwei Fei, Shaun Hardy, Jinfu Shu, Chris Hadidiacos, A. J. Jayaraman, Charles Prewitt, Wes Huntress, Hatten Yoder, 
George Cody, David Mao. Third row: Rus Hemley, Marilyn Fogel, Bjorn Mysen, Jim Van Orman, Michelle Minitti, 
Satoshi Nakano, Anurag Sharma, Margie Imlay, John Straub. Fourth row: James Scott, Yanzhang Ma, Dean Presnall, 
Przemyslaw Dera, Bill Minarik, Nabil Boctor, Monika Koch-Muller, Viktor Struzhkin, Maceo Bacote. Fifth row: 
Bob Hazen, Doug Rumble, Hideki Masago, Debora Passos de Araujo, Mary Becker, Noreen Tuross, Harry Green, 
Roy Dingus, Fred Marton, Quanzhong Guo, Roy Scalco, Bill Key. Sixth row: Gundmundur Gudfinnsson, Ian MacGregor, 
Kevin Burke, Mike Day, Matthew Wooller, Matthew McCarthy, Diane O'Brien. 


page $2 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

July I, 1 999 -June 30, 2000 

boratory Personne 

Research Staff Members 

Francis R. Boyd, Jr., Penologist Emeritus 

George D. Cody 

Ronald E. Cohen 

Yingwei Fei 

Marilyn L Fogel 

John D. Frantz 

Robert M. Hazen 

Russell J. Hemley 

Wesley T. Huntress, Jr., Director 

T. Neil Irvine 

Ho-kwang Mao 

Bjorn O. Mysen 

Charles T. Prewitt 

Douglas Rumble III 

David Virgo 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Director Emeritus 

Senior Fellows and Associates 

Peter M. Bell, Adjunct Senior Research Scientist 
Constance Bertka, Research Scientist, National 

Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and 

Center for High Pressure Research (CHiPR) 2 
Nabil Z. Boctor, Research Scientist (NASA 

Astrobiology) 2 
Mikhail Eremets, Senior Research Scientist (CHiPR 

and NSF) 
Alexander Goncharov, Research Scientist (CHiPR) 2 
Stephen A. Gramsch, CHiPR Associate 
Daniel Hausermann, Project Manager (Carnegie 

Jingzhu Hu, Research Technician (NSF) 
Jurgen Konzett, Swiss National Science Foundation 

Gotthard Saghi-Szabo, IT/IS Manager (Carnegie) 
Markus Schwoerer-Bohning, Beamline Scientist 

(Carnegie HPCAT) 
Jinfu Shu, Research Technician (CHiPR) 
Maddury S. Somayazulu, HPCAT and Arizona State 

Research Associate 
Viktor Struzhkin, Research Scientist (CHiPR) 2 
Hexiong Yang, Research Scientist (Hazen Gift and 

NSF Grant) 2 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Richard D. Ash, Carnegie Fellow and NASA 

Associate 5 
James Badro, CHiPR Associate" 
Joakim Bebie, Carnegie and NASA Astrobiology 

Institute Fellow 7 
Przemyslaw Dera, Barbara McClintock Fellow" 
Timothy R. Filley, Carnegie Fellow and Astrobiology 

Matthew Fouch, Harry Oscar Wood Fellow 
Henry C. Fncke, NSF Associate 
Huaxiang Fu, ONR Associate 
Stephen A. Gramsch, CHiPR Associate 
Eugene A. Gregoryanz, CHiPR and NSF Associate 
Oguz Gulseren, DOE Associate 9 
Holger Helwig, German DFG Fellowship 10 
Wenjie Jiao, Carnegie Fellow and NSF Associate" 
Monica Koch-Muller, CHiPR Associate 10 
Jurgen Konzett, CHiPR Associate' 
Jie Li, Grove Karl Gilbert Fellow' 2 
Zhen-Xian Liu, CHiPR Associate 
Yanzhang Ma, NSF Associate 
Frederic C Marton, NSF Associate 
Matthew D. McCarthy, Carnegie Fellow'" 
William G. Minarik, NSF Associate" 
Sonali Mukherjee, DOE Fellow''' 
James Scott, NSF Associate" 
Anurag Sharma, NASA Astrobiology Associate 
Sean Shieh, NSF Associate 16 

Sergey Stolbov, ONR Associate' 7 

Mark A. Teece, Smithsonian Institution Research 

Oliver Tschauner, NSF Associate' 7 
Matthew Wooller, Loeb Fellowship, Smithsonian 

Institution, NSF Associate' 9 
Ji-an Xu, NSF Associate 
Susan Ziegler, Carnegie Fellow and NASA 

Astrobiology Associate 20 

Predoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Charles Kevin Boyce, Harvard University' 2 
Albert Colman, Yale University 2 ' 
Yang Ding, Johns Hopkins University 22 
Stefanie L. Japel, Johns Hopkins University 
Sebastien Merkel, NSF and CHiPR Associate 

Summer Interns, Geoscience 
Program (NSF) 

Jennifer Adler, Princeton University 

Lora Armstrong, Montgomery Blair High School 

Anna Bradshaw, University of Wisconsin-Madison 

Thomas Doggett, Oberlin College 

Laura A. Gilpin, University of Cincinnati 

Michelle Grosso, State University of New York 

at Albany 
Garret W. Huntress, University of Maryland 
Jean N. Lee, Harvard University 
Amie Lucier, Washington and Lee University 
Achintya Madduri, Thomas Jefferson High School 
Amy McAdam, Michigan State University 
Nick Schmerr, Beloit College 
Sarah Strode, Washington University 

Supporting Staff 

Maceo T. Bacote, Engineering Apprentice' 2 

Bobbie L Brown, Instrument Maker 

Stephen D. Coley, Sr., Instrument Maker 

James B. Collins, Instrument Maker 

H. Michael Day, Facilities Manager' 2 

Roy R. Dingus, Building Engineer' 2 

Pablo D. Esparza, Maintenance Technician' 2 

Rose Filley, Research Technician 

David J. George, Electronics Technician 

Christos G. Hadidiacos, Electronics Engineer 

Shaun J. Hardy, Librarian' 2 

Marjorie E. Imlay, Assistant to the Director 

William E. Key, Building Engineer 12 

Paul Meeder, Administrative Assistant 

Lawrence B. Patrick, Maintenance Technician 12 

Glenn Piercey, Research Technician 

Pedro J. Roa, Maintenance Technician 12 

Roy E. Scalco, Engineering Apprentice' 2 

Susan A. Schmidt, Coordinating Secretary 

John M. Straub, Business Manager 

Jacob Waldbauer, Technician 21 

Merri Wolf, Library Technical Assistant' 2 

Carnegie Senior Associate 

Ian D. MacGregor, National Science Foundation 12 

Visiting Investigators 

John V. Badding, Pennsylvania State University 
Brigitte Behrends, Deutsche Akademische 

Austauschdienst, Bonn 
David R. Bell, Cape Town, South Africa 
Kevin Burke, University of Houston' 2 
Ben Burton, National Institute of Standards and 

Christopher L Cahill, University of Notre Dame 
Altaf H. Carim, Pennsylvania State University 
I. Ming Chou, U.S. Geological Survey 
Pamela Conrad, jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA 

William B. Daniels, University of Delaware 

Jean Dubessy, Centre de Recherches sur La Geologie 

des Matieres Premieres Minerales et Energetiques, 

Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, France 
Thomas S. Duffy, Princeton University 
Gozen Ertem, Georgetown University Medical Center 
Yuri Freiman, Verkin Institute of Low-Temperature 

Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of 

Sciences, Kharkov, Ukraine 
Harry Green, University of California, Riverside' 2 
David Giorgis, University of Lausanne 
A. J. Jayaraman, University of Hawaii at Manoa 
Ikuo Kushiro, University of Tokyo 
Amy Y. Liu, Department of Physics, Georgetown 

Haozhe Liu, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of 

Sciences, Beijing 
Hideki Masago, University of Tokyo 
Kiyoto Matsushi, University of Tsukuba, japan 
Ryan P. McCormack, National Institute of Standards 

and Technology 
Harold Morowitz, George Mason University 
Satoshi Nakano, Tokyo Institute of Technology 
Diane M. O'Brien, Stanford University 
Debora Passos de Araujo, University of Brasilia, 

Michel Pichavant, CRSCM-CNRS, Orleans, France 
Nicolai P. Pokhilenko, Institute of Mineralogy and 

Petrology, Novosibirsk Russia 
Robert K. Popp, Texas ASM University 
Dean C Presnall, University of Texas 
Pascal Richet, Institut de Physique du Globe, Paris 
Anil K. Singh, National Aerospace Laboratories, 

Bangalore, India 
Nicolai V. Sobolev, Institute of Mineralogy and 

Petrology, Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk Russia 
Gerd Steinle-Neumann, University of Michigan 
Yoshihide (Yoshi) Ogasawara, Waseda University, 

Lars Stixrude, University of Michigan 
Mikhail Strzhemechny, Verkin Institute of Low- 
Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian 

Academy of Sciences, Kharkov, Ukraine 
Jack Tossell, University of Maryland 
Noreen C Tuross, Smithsonian Institution 
Qingchen Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences 
Uwe Weichert, ETH, Zurich 
Wansheng Xiao, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese 

Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 
Hak Nan Yung, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 

Ru-Yuan Zhang, Stanford University 
Yi-Gang Zhang, Academia Sinica, China 
Zeming Zhang, Academia Sinica, China 
Guangtian Zou, Director of Center for Superhard 

Materials, jilm University, Changchun, China 

Retired June 30, 2000 
: From December 1 , 1 999 
'From July I, 1999 
'To August 29. 1999 

5 To September 30, 1 999; joint appointment with DTM 
» To September 30, 1999 

7 To December 31,1 999; joint appointment with DTM 
$ From January I 1 . 2000 
"To August 31. 1999 
10 From January 1 , 2000 
" To June 30, 2000. joint appointment with DTM 

7 Joint appointment with DTM 

' From July 1 , 1 999 to August 31,1 999; joint appointment with DTM 
"From July 19, 1999 
ls From September 15. 1999 
'" To June 30, 2000 
17 From September I, 1999 
"To July 30, 1999 
'" From January 6, 2000 
70 To December 3, 1999 

From November 23, 1999 
■■■'From December 8, 1999 

' From January 6, 2000 to March 3 1 , 2000 

Geophysical Laboratory Bibliography 


YEAR BOOK £0—00 page 53 

Angel, R. J., D. J. Frost, N. L Ross, and R. 

J. Hemley, Stabilities and equations of state of 
dense hydrous magnesium silicates, Phys. Earth 
Planet. Inter., in press. 

Antsygina, T. N„ K. A. Chishko, Yu. A. 

Freiman, S. M. Tretyak, and R. J. Hemley, 
Analytical approach to mean field theory of the 
BSP transition in solid hydrogens under pres- 
sure, J. Low Temp. Phys., in press. 

2886 Aoki, H, Y. Syono, and R.J. Hemley, 
eds., Physics Meets Mineralogy: Condensed-Matter 
Physics in Geosciences, Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge and New York, 397 pp., 2000. 
(Available for purchase from the publisher.) 

2887 Aoki, H„ Y. Syono, and R. J. Hemley, 
Physics and mineralogy: the current confluence, 
in Physics Meets Mineralogy: Condensed-Matter 
Physics in Geosciences, H. Aoki, Y. Syono, and R. 
J. Hemley, eds., pp. 3-18, Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge and New York, 2000. 

2839 Badro, J„ V. V. Struzhkin, J. Shu, R. J. 
Hemley, H. K. Mao, C.-C Kao, J.-P. Rueff, and 
G. Shen, Magnetism in FeO at megabar pres- 
sures from x-ray emission spectroscopy, Phys. 
Rev. Lett. 83,4101-4104, 1999. 

2895 Bearhop, S., M. A. Teece, S. Waldron, 
and R. W. Furness, The influence of lipid and 
uric acid upon 8 I3 C and 8 I5 N values of avian 
blood: implications for trophic studies, The Auk 
I I 7, 504-507, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

2849 Boyd, F. R, D. G. Pearson, and S. A. 
Mertzman, Spinel-facies peridotites from the 
Kaapvaal root, in Proceedings of the Vllth 
International Kjmberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et 
al., eds., pp. 40-48, Red Roof Design, Cape 
Town, South Africa, 1 999. 

Brandes, J. A., N. Z. Boctor, R M. Hazen, 

H. S. Yoder, Jr., and G. D. Cody, Prebiotic 
amino acid synthesis pathways via oc-keto acids: 
an alternative to the Strecker synthesis, in 
Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein 
Geochemistry, G. A. Goodfriend et al., eds., 
Oxford University Press, New York, in press. 

2892 Canm, A. H., P. Dera, L W. Finger, B. 
Mysen, C. T. Prewitt, and D. G. Schlom, Crystal 
structure and compressibility of Ba 4 Ru 3 O l0 ,J. 
Solid State Chem. 149, 137-142,2000. 

2852 Carlson, R W„ F. R. Boyd, S. B. Shirey, P. 
E. Janney, T L Grove, S. A. Bowring, M. D. 
Schmitz, J. C Dann, D. R Bell, J. J. Gurney, S. H. 
Richardson, M. Tredoux, A. H. Menzies, D. G. 
Pearson, R. J. Hart, A. H. Wilson, and D. Moser, 
Continental growth, preservation, and modifi- 
cation in southern Africa, GSA Today 10 (no. 2), 
1-7, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

2850 Carlson, R W„ D. G. Pearson, F. R. 
Boyd, S. B. Shirey, G. Irvine, A. H. Menzies, and 
J. J. Gurney, Re-Os systematics of lithospheric 
peridotites: implications for lithosphere forma- 
tion and preservation, in Proceedings of the Vllth 
International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et 
al., eds., pp. 99-108, Red Roof Design, Cape 
Town, South Afnca, 1 999. (No repnnts available.) 

2867 Carpenter, M. A., R J. Hemley, and H. K. 
Mao, High-pressure elasticity of stishovite and 
the P4 2 /mnm ^=^ Pnnm phase transition, j. 
Geophys. Res. / 05, 1 0807- 1 08 I 6, 2000. 

Chou, l.-M., A. Sharma, R. G Burruss, R. 

J. Hemley, A. F. Goncharov, L A. Stern, and S. 
H. Kirby, Diamond-anvil cell observation of a 
new methane hydrate phase at 1 00 MPa pres- 
sures,/ Phys. Chem., in press. 

2882 Cody, G. D., N. Z. Boctor, T. R. Filley, R. 
M. Hazen, J. H. Scott, A. Sharma, and H. S. 
Yoder, Jr., Primordial carbonylated iron-sulfur 
compounds and the synthesis of pyruvate, 
Science 289, I 337- 1 340, 2000. 

2841 Cohen, R. E., Bonding and electronic 
structure of minerals, in Microscopic Properties 
and Processes in Minerals, K. Wright and R. 
Catlow, eds., pp. 20 1 -264, Kluwer Academic 
Publishers, Dordrecht, 1999. 

2853 Cohen, R. E., Theory of ferroelectrics: a 
vision for the next decade and beyond,], Phys. 
Chem. Solids 61, I 39- 1 46, 2000. 

2889 Cohen, R E„ MgO— the simplest oxide, 
in Physics Meets Mineralogy: Condensed-Matter 
Physics in Geosciences, H. Aoki, Y. Syono, and R. 
J. Hemley, eds., pp. 95- 1 23, Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge and New York, 2000. 

2906 Cohen, R. E., ed., Fundamental Physics of 
Ferroelectrics 2000, AIP Conference Proceedings 
535, American Institute of Physics, Melville, 
N.Y., 385 pp., 2000. (Available for purchase 
from the publisher.) 

2857 Cohen, R. E, O. Gulseren, and R. J. 
Hemley, Accuracy in equation-of-state formula- 
tions, Am. Mineral. 85, 338-344, 2000. 

2896 Dittel, A. I., C E. Epifanio, S. M. Schwalm, 
M. S. Fantle, and M. L Fogel, Carbon and nitro- 
gen sources for juvenile blue crabs Callinectes 
sapidus in coastal wetlands, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 
194, 103-1 12, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

2872 Dorendorf, F„ U. Wiechert, and G. 
Worner, Hydrated sub-arc mantle: a source for 
the Kluchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka/Russia, 
Earth Planet. So. Lett. I 75, 69-86, 2000. (No 
repnnts available.) 

2843 Duffy, T S, G. Shen, D. L Heinz, J. Shu, 
Y. Ma, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, and A. K. Singh, 
Lattice strains in gold and rhenium under non- 
hydrostatic compression to 37 GPa, Phys. Rev. 8 
60, 15063-15073, 1999. 

2844 Duffy, T. S„ G. Shen, J. Shu, H. K. Mao, R 
J. Hemley, and A. K. Singh, Elasticity, shear 
strength, and equation of state of molybdenum 
and gold under nonhydrostatic compression to 
24 GPa, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6729-6736, 1999. 

2859 Eggert, J. H., E. Karmon, R J. Hemley, H. 
K. Mao, and A. F. Goncharov, Pressure- 
enhanced ortho-para conversion in solid 
hydrogen up to 58 GPa, Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. 
USA 96, 12269-12272, 1999. 

2884 Eremets, M„ E. A. Gregoryanz, V. V. 
Struzhkin, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, N. Mulders, 
and N. M. Zimmerman, Electrical conductivity 
of xenon at megabar pressures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 
85, 2797-2800, 2000. 

29 I I Fei, Y„ J. Li, C. M. Bertka, and C. T 
Prewitt, Structure type and bulk modulus of 
Fe 3 S, a new iron-sulfur compound, Am. Mineral. 
85, 1830-1833,2000. 

Fei, Y., and Y. Wang, High-pressure and 

high-temperature powder diffraction, Rev. 
Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

Feldman, J. L„ J. H. Eggert, H. K. Mao, and 

R. J. Hemley, Computations of vibron excita- 
tions and Raman spectra of solid hydrogens,]. 
Low Temp. Phys., in press. 

2854 Filley, T. R, P. G. Hatcher, W. C Shortle, 
and R. T. Praseuth, The application of re- 
labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide ( l3 C- 
TMAH) thermochemolysis to the study of fun- 
gal degradation of wood, Org. Geochem. 3 1 , 
181-198, 2000. 

Finger, L W., Accuracy in x-ray diffrac- 
tion, in Physics Meets Mineralogy: Condensed- 
Matter Physics in Geosciences, H. Aoki, Y. Syono, 
and R. J. Hemley, eds., pp. 63-70, Cambridge 
University Press, Cambridge and New York, 

29 10 Finger, L. W., and P. G. Conrad, The 
crystal structure of "tetragonal almandine- 
pyrope phase" (TAPP): a reexamination, Am. 
Mineral. 85, I 804- 1 807, 2000. 

2855 Frantz, J. D., Salts of aliphatic carboxylic 
acids: Raman spectra and ion pairing in 
hydrothermal solutions containing sodium and 
calcium acetates, Chem. Geol. 164, 1-20, 2000. 
(No reprints available.) 

Freiman, Yu. A., S. M. Tretyak, A. 

Jezowski, and R. J. Hemley, Self-consistent the- 
ory of lattice distortion in solid p-H 2 , o-D 2 , and 
HD,J. Low Temp. Phys., in press. 

2883 Fncke, H. C, and R R Rogers, Multiple 
taxon-multiple locality approach to providing 
oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded 
theropod dinosaurs, Geology 28, 799-802, 2000. 

2907 Fu, H„ and R E. Cohen, Piezoelectric 
response from rotating polarization, in 
Fundamental Physics of Ferroelectrics 2000, R. E. 
Cohen, ed., pp. 1 43- 1 50, AIP Conference 
Proceedings 535, American Institute of Physics, 
Melville, N.Y, 2000. 

2909 Fu, H„ and R E. Cohen, Polarization 
rotation mechanism for ultrahigh electro- 
mechanical response in single-crystal piezo- 
electncs, Nature 403, 281-283, 2000. 

288 I Goncharov, A. R, E. Gregoryanz, H. K. 
Mao, Z. Liu, and R. J. Hemley, Optical evidence 
for a nonmolecular phase of nitrogen above 
I 50 GPa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, I 262- 1 265, 2000. 

Goncharov, A. F„ V. V. Struzhkin, R. J. 

Hemley, H. K. Mao, and Z. Liu, New tech- 
niques for optical spectroscopy at ultrahigh 
pressures, in Science and Technology of High 
Pressure, M. H. Manghnani, W. J. Nellis, and M. 
F. Nicol, eds., Universities Press, Hyderabad, 
India, in press. 

Goncharov, A. F., M. A. Strzhemechny, 

H. K. Mao, and R J. Hemley, Low-frequency 
Raman excitations in phase I of solid H : : role of 
crystal fields, Phys. Rev. 8, in press. 

Goodfriend, G. A., M. J. Collins, M. L 

Fogel, S. A. Macko, and J. F. Wehmiller, eds., 
Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein 
Geochemistry, Oxford University Press, New 
York, in press. 


page 34 YEAR BOOK pp~00 

2876 Gramsch, S. A., A closer look at phase 
diagrams for the general chemistry course,]. 
Chem. Educ. 77, 7 1 8-723, 2000. 

2858 Gregoryanz, E„ R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, 
and P. Gillet, High-pressure elasticity of cc- 
quartz: instability and ferroelastic transition, 
Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3 I 1 7-3 1 20, 2000. 

2873 Hammouda, T., and D. J. Cherniak, 
Diffusion of Sr in fluorphlogopite determined 
by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, 
Earth Planet. So. Lett. I 78, 339-349, 2000. 

Hazen, R. M., The endless frontier in sci- 

entific research, in Accelerating Creativity, C. L. 
Harper, ed., Templeton Foundation, Radnor, 
Pa., in press. 

Hazen, R. M„ Isostructural versus equilit 

num equations of state, in Science and Technology 
of High Pressure, M. H. Manghnani, W.J. Nellis, 
and M. F. Nicol, eds., Universities Press, 
Hyderabad, India, in press. 

Hazen, R. M., Minerals and the origin of 

life, Sci. Am., in press. 

Hazen, R. M., and R. T. Downs, eds., 

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Crystal 
Chemistry, Reviews in Mineralogy and 
Geochemistry, Vol. 41, Mineralogical Society of 
America, Washington, D.C., in press. 

Hazen, R M„ R. T. Downs, and C. T. 

Prewitt, Comparative crystal chemistry: general 
principles, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

Hazen, R. M., and L. W. Finger, 

Systematics of high-pressure silicate structures, 
Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

Hazen, R. M., M. H. Hazen, and S. Pober, 

American Geological Literature: 1669-1850, Pober 
Publishing, Staten Island, N.Y., in press. 

2874 Hazen, R. M„ and M. Singer, Waarom zip 
zwarte gaten niet zwart? [Why Aren't Black Holes 
Black?] (in Dutch), Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, 
Amsterdam, 357 pp., 2000. (Available for pur- 
chase from the publisher.) 

29 I 6 Hazen, R. M., and M. Singer, Por que Nao 
Sao Negros os Buracos Negros? [Why Aren't Black 
Holes Black?] (in Portuguese), Dinalivro, Lisbon, 
276 pp., 1998. (Available for purchase from the 

2865 Hazen, R M., M. B. Weinberger, H. Yang, 
and C T. Prewitt, Comparative high-pressure 
crystal chemistry of wadsleyite, p-(Mg u „ 
Fe^SiO.,, with x=0 and 0.25, Am. Mineral. 85, 
770-777, 2000. 

2838 Hazen, R M., and H. Yang, Effects of 
cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T 
equations of state Of cubic spinels, Am. Mineral. 
84, 1956-1960, 1999. 

2866 Hazen, R M„ H. Yang, and C. T. Prewitt, 
High-pressure crystal chemistry of Fe ! '-wads- 
leyite, p-Fe^S^O* Am. Mineral. 85, 778-783, 

2856 Hemley, R. J., The element of uncer- 
tainty, Nature 404, 240-24 1 , 2000. 

29 1 4 Hemley, R. J., Effects of high pressure on 
molecules, Anna Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 763-800, 

2890 Hemley, R. J., J. Badro, and D. M. Teter, 
Polymorphism in crystalline and amorphous sil- 
ica at high pressure, in Physics Meets Mineralogy: 
Condensed-Matter Physics in Geosciences, H. Aoki, 
Y. Syono, and R. J. Hemley, eds., pp. I 73-204, 
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and 
New York, 2000. 

Hemley, R. J., and P. Dera, Molecular 

crystals, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

2885 Hemley, R J„ A. F. Goncharov, Z. Liu, H. 
K. Mao, and S. Merkel, High-pressure infrared 
synchrotron and Raman microspectroscopy of 
Earth and planetary materials, in Microbeam 
Analysis 2000: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of 
the International Union of Microbeam Analysis 
Societies, D. B. Williams and R. Shimizu, eds., pp. 
87-88, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2000. 

2905 Hemley, R J., H. K. Mao, A. F. Goncharov, 
M. Eremets, and V. V. Struzhkin, The Raman 
probe of ultrahigh-pressure phenomena, in 
Proceedings of the Seventeenth International 
Conference on Raman Spectroscopy (ICORS 2000), 
S.-L Zhang and B. Zhu, eds., pp. 20-25, John 
Wiley & Sons, Chichester and New York, 2000. 

287 1 Hemley, R J., H. K, Mao, and S. A. 
Gramsch, Pressure-induced transformations in 
deep mantle and core minerals, Mineral. Mag. 
64, 157-184,2000. 

2868 Hemley, R. J„ J. Shu, M. A. Carpenter, J. Hu, 
H. K. Mao, and K. J. Kingma, Strain/order parame- 
ter coupling in the ferroelastic transition in dense 
Si0 2 , Solid State Commun. 1 14, 527-532, 2000, 

2898 Hillgren, V. J., C. K. Gessmann, and J. Li, 
An experimental perspective on the light ele- 
ment in Earth's core, in Origin of the Earth and 
Moon, R. M. Canup and K. Righter, eds., pp. 
245-263, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 
2000. (No reprints available. Available online at 

29 1 7 Huang, E., J. A. Xu, J. F. Lin, and J. Z. Hu, 
Pressure-induced phase transitions in gypsum, 
High Pressure Res. I 7, 57-75, 2000. (No reprints 

2848 Huntress, W. T, Jr., Missions to comets 
and asteroids, Space So. Rev. 90, 329-340, 1999. 
(No reprints available.) 

2901 llchik, R P., and D. Rumble III, Sulfur, car- 
bon, and oxygen isotope geochemistry of pyrite 
and calcite from veins and sediments sampled 
by borehole CCM-2, Creede caldera, Colorado, 
in Ancient Lake Creede: Its Volcano-Tectonic Setting, 
History of Sedimentation, and Relation to 
Mineralization in the Creede Mining District, P. M. 
Bethke and R L Hay, eds., pp. 287-300, Special 
Paper 346, Geological Society of America, 
Boulder, Colo., 2000. (No reprints available.) 

Jayaraman, A., A brief review of gem 

minerals, natural and synthetic, Current Science 
(Bangalore, India), in press. 

Jayaraman, A., S. R. Shieh, S. K. Sharma, L 

C. Ming, and S. Y. Wang, Pressure-induced 
phase transitions in CuGe0 3 from Raman spec- 
troscopic studies,]. Raman Spectrosc, in press. 

Kagi, H„ R Lu, P. Davidson, A. F. 

Goncharov, H, K. Mao, and R J. Hemley, 
Evidence for ice VI as an inclusion in cuboid 
diamonds from high P-T near infrared spec- 
troscopy, Mineral. Mag., in press. 

Keil, R. G, and R. L Fogel, Reworking of 

amino acids in marine sediments: stable carbon 
isotopic composition of amino acids in sedi- 
ments along the Washington coast, Limnol. 
Oceanogr., in press. 

2870 Klehe, A.-K., R D. McDonald, A. F. 
Goncharov, V V Struzhkin, H. K. Mao, R. J. 
Hemley, T. Sasaki, W. Hayes, and J. Singleton, 
Infrared studies of the organic superconductor 
K-(BEDT-TFF),Cu(SCN) 2 under pressure, J. 
Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, L247-L256, 2000. 

Koch, P. L, A. K. Behrensmeyer, N. 

Tuross, A. W. Stott, R. P. Evershed, and M. L 
Fogel, The effects of surficial weathering of the 
stable isotope, amino acid, and lipid composi- 
tion of bones, Ancient Biomolecules, in press. 

29 I 8 Konzett, J., R. A. Armstrong, and D. 
Gunther, Modal metasomatism in the Kaapvaal 
craton lithosphere: constraints on timing and 
genesis from U-Pb zircon dating of metasoma- 
tized periodotites and MARID-type xenoliths, 
Contnb. Mineral. Petrol. 139, 704-719, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

289 I Konzett, J., and Y. Fei, Transport and 
storage of potassium in the Earth's upperjnan- 
tle and transition zone: an experimental study 
to 23 GPa in simplified and natural bulk com- 
positions,]. Petrol. 41, 583-603, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

2877 Li, Y., U. Wiechert, Y. Zheng, X. Zhi, and 
J. Hoefs, Laserprobe oxygen isotope analysis of 
minerals from mantle-derived rocks in eastern 
China, Chinese Sci. Bull. 44, 74 1 -744, 1 999. 

Ma, Y., H. K. Mao, R J. Hemley, and S. A. 

Gramsch, Rotation method for laser-heating x- 
ray diffraction measurements at high pressures 
and temperatures, Rev. Sci. Instrum., in press. 

2893 Meng, J. F„ D. A. Polvani, C D. W. Jones, 
F. J. DiSalvo, Y. Fei, and J. V. Badding, Pressure 
tuning in the chemical search for improved ther- 
moelectric materials: Nd x Ce3. x Pt 3 Sb 4 , Chem. 
Mater. 12, 1 97-20 1 , 2000. (No reprints available.) 

2869 Merkel, S„ A. F. Goncharov, H. K Mao, P. 
Gillet, and R. J. Hemley, Raman spectroscopy of 
iron to I 52 gigapascals: implications for Earth's 
inner core, Science 288, I 626- 1 629, 2000. 

Merkel, S., R. J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, and 

D. M. Teter, Finite-element modeling and ab 
initio calculations of megabar stresses in the 
diamond anvil cell, in Science and Technology of 
High Pressure, M. H. Manghnani, W. J. Nellis, and 
M. F. Nicol, eds., Universities Press, Hyderabad, 
India, in press. 

2840 Miller, G H„ P. B. Beaumont, H. J. 
Deacon, A. S. Brooks, P. E. Hare, and A. J. T. 
Jull, Earliest modern humans in southern Africa 
dated by isoleucine epimerizations in ostrich 
eggshell, Quat So. Rev. 18, 1537-1548, 1999. 
(No reprints available.) 

Ming, L C, S. K. Sharma, Y. H. Kim, J.-H. 

Chen, M. Vayghan, S. R. Shieh, and A. 
Jayaraman, Isothermal compressibility and phase 
transformation studies on CuGeO, under high 
pressures and high temperatures using synchro- 
tron radiation,]. Phys. Chem. Solids, in press. 

Geophysical Laboratory Bibliography 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO I page JJ 

2900 Morowitz, H. J., J. D. Kostelnik, J. Yang, 
and G. D. Cody, The origin of intermediary 
metabolism, Proc. Natl. Acad. So. USA 97, 7704- 
7708, 2000. (No reprints available. Available 
online at 

2842 Mysen, B. O,, and M. Acton, Water in 
hKO-saturated magma-fluid systems: solubility 
behavior in K 2 0-AI 2 O r SiCyH 2 to 2.0 GPa 
and 1 300°C, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63, 
3799-3815, 1999. 

2880 Mysen, B. O., and K. Wheeler, Solubility 
behavior of water in haploandesitic melts at 
high pressure and high temperature, Am. 
Mineral. 85, I I 28- 1 1 42, 2000. 

Mysen, B. O., and K. Wheeler, Alkali alu- 

minosilicate-saturated aqueous fluids in the 
Earth's upper mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 
in press. 

2899 Nonnaga, K„ J. Hayashi, T. Chiba, and G. 
D. Cody, Microheterogeneity of solvent- 
swollen coal probed by proton spin diffusion, 
Energy & Fuels 13, 1239-1245, 1999. (No 
reprints available.) 

Norinaga, K., M. lino, D. G. Cody, and P. 

Thiyagarajan, Characterization of micro-domain 
structure of solvent-swollen coal by proton spin 
diffusion and small angle neutron scattering, 
Energy & Fuels, in press. 

2903 Philippot, P., and D. Rumble III, Fluid-rock 
interactions during high-pressure and ultrahigh- 
pressure metamorphism, Int. Geol. Rev. 42, 3 I 2- 
327, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

2894 Polvanj, D. A., Y. Fei, J. F. Meng, and J. V. 
Badding, A technique for thermoelectric 
power measurements at high pressure in an 
octahedral multianvil press, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 

Prewitt, C T., and J. B. Parise, Hydrous 

phases and hydrogen bonding at high pressure, 
Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

2847 Rumble, D„ III, Summary of research on 
stable-isotope geochemistry of UHP rocks, 1 993 
to 1 998, Int. Geol. Rev. 41, 1 028- 1 032, 1 999. 

2902 Rumble, D., Ill, Summary of research on 
stable-isotope geochemistry of UHP rocks, 
1993 to 1998, in Ultra-High Pressure 
Metamorphism and Geodynamics in Collision-Type 
Orogenic Belts, W. G. Ernst and J. G. Liou, eds., 
pp. 229-233, Bellwether Publishing/Geological 
Society of America, Boulder, Colo., 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

2904 Rumble, D„ III, Q. Wang, and R. Zhang, 
Stable isotope geochemistry of marbles from 
the coesite UHP terrains of Dabieshan and 
Sulu, China, Lithos 52, 79-95, 2000. 

2897 Rushmer, T., W. G. Mmank, and G. J. 
Taylor, Physical processes of core formation, in 
Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M. Canup and K. 
Righter, eds., pp. 227-243, University of Arizona 
Press, Tucson, 2000. (No reprints available. 
Available online at 

2915 Sanloup, G, F. Guyot, P. Gillet, G. Fiquet, 
R. J. Hemley, M. Mezouar, and I. Martinez, 
Structural changes in liquid Fe at high pressures 
and high temperatures from synchrotron X-ray 
diffraction, Europhys. Lett. 52, I 5 I - 1 57, 2000. 

2862 Shieh, S. R, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, and 
L G Ming, In-situ X-ray diffraction studies of 
dense hydrous magnesium silicates at mantle 
conditions, Earth Planet. Sa. Lett. I 77, 69-80, 2000. 

2864 Shieh, S. R, H. K. Mao, J. Konzett, and 
R. j. Hemley, In-situ high pressure X-ray diffrac- 
tion of phase E to I 5 GPa, Am. Mineral. 85, 765- 
769, 2000. 

285 I Shimizu, N„ N. P. Pokhilenko, F. R Boyd, 
and D. G. Pearson, Trace element characteris- 
tics of garnet dunites/harzburgites, host rocks 
for Siberian peridotitic diamonds, in Proceedings 
of the Vllth International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. 
Gurney et al., eds., pp. 773-782, Red Roof 
Design, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999. 

Smyth, J. R„ S. D. Jacobsen, and R. M. 

Hazen, Comparative crystal chemistry of dense 
oxide minerals, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

Smyth, J. R., S. D. Jacobsen, and R. M. 

Hazen, Comparative crystal chemistry of 
orthosilicates, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., in press. 

29 I 2 Sobolev, N. V., B. A. Fursenko, S. V. 
Goryainov, j. Shu, R. j. Hemley, H. K. Mao, and 
F. R. Boyd, Fossilized high pressure from the 
Earth's deep interior: the coesite-in-diamond 
barometer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sa. USA 97, I I 875- 
I I 879, 2000. 

Speziale, S„ C.-S. Zha, T S. Duffy, R J. 

Hemley, and H. K. Mao, Quasihydrostatic com- 
pression of magnesium oxide to 52 GPa: impli- 
cations for the pressure-volume-temperature 
equation of state,]. Geophys. Res., in press. 

Steinle-Neumann, G, L Stixrude, and R. 

E. Cohen, Absence of lattice strain anomalies at 
the electronic topological transition in zinc at 
high pressure, Phys. Rev. B, in press. 

Stolbov, S., and R. E. Cohen, First-princi- 

ples calculation of the formation energy in 
MgO-CaO solid solutions, Phys. Rev. 8, in press. 

2908 Stolbov, S., H. Fu, R. E. Cohen, L 
Bellaiche, and D. Vanderbilt, Comparison of 
electromechanical properties of BaTiO. ; 
between LA\PW and a model Hamiltonian, in 
Fundamental Physics of Ferroelectrics 2000, R. E. 
Cohen, ed„ pp. 1 5 I - 1 58, AIP Conference 
Proceedings 535, American Institute of Physics, 
Melville, N.Y., 2000. 

2878 Struzhkin, V. V„ A. F. Goncharov, H. K. 
Mao, R. J. Hemley, S. W. Moore, J. M. Graybeal, 
J. Sarrao, and Z. Fisk, Coupled magnon-phonon 
excitations in Sr 2 CuCI 2 2 at high pressure, Phys. 
Rev. 8 62, 3895-3899, 2000. 

Struzhkin, V. V„ R J. Hemley, H. K. Mao, 

Y. A. Timofeev, and M. I. Eremets, Electronic 
and magnetic studies of materials to megabar 
pressures, Hyperfine Transitions, in press. 

Strzhemechny, M„ and R. J. Hemley, 

New ortho-para conversion mechanism in 
dense solid hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett, in press. 

2860 Teece, M. A., M. L Fogel, M. E. Dollhopf, 
and K. H. Nealson, Isotopic fractionation associ- 
ated with biosynthesis of fatty acids by a marine 
bacterium under oxic and anoxic conditions, 
Org. Geochem. 30, I 57 1 - 1 579, 1 999. 

Teece, M. A., N. Tuross, J. Kress, P. 

Peterson, G. Russell, and M. L Fogel, 
Preservation of proteins in museum herbarium 
samples, in Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein 
Geochemistry, G A. Goodfriend et al., eds., 
Oxford University Press, New York, in press. 

286 1 Velmsky, D. J., and M. L Fogel, Cycling of 
dissolved and particulate nitrogen and carbon in 
the Framvaren Fjord, Norway: stable isotopic 
variations, Mar. Chem. 67, I 6 1 - 1 80, 1 999. (No 
reprints available.) 

2863 Virgo, D., and R K. Popp, Hydrogen defi- 
ciency in mantle-derived phlogopites, Am. 
Mineral. 85, 753-759, 2000. 

Weng, Y.-H., and D. C Presnall, The sys- 

tem diopside-forsterite-enstatite at 5. 1 GPa: a 
ternary model for melting of the mantle, Can. 
Mineral., in press. 

2879 Wenk, H.-R, S. Matthies, R J. Hemley, H. 
K. Mao, and J. Shu, The plastic deformation of 
iron at pressure of the Earth's inner core, 
Nature 405, 1 044- 1 047, 2000. 

Wiechert, U., J. Fiebig, R. Przybilla, Y. 

Xiao, and J. Hoefs, Isotope-ratio-monitoring 
mass spectrometry for in situ laser oxygen iso- 
tope analysis, Chem. Geol., in press. 

Williams, Q., and R. J. Hemley, Hydrogen 

in the deep Earth, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 
in press. 

29 I 3 Xu, J., and H. K. Mao, Moissanite: a win- 
dow for high-pressure experiments, Science 290, 
783-785, 2000. 

2845 Yang, H., and J. Konzett, High-pressure 
synthesis of Na 2 Mg 6 Si 6 O l8 (OH) 2 — a new 
hydrous silicate phase isostructural with aenig- 
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2837 Yang, H., and C T Prewitt, Crystal struc- 
ture and compressibility of a two-layer polytype 
of pseudowollastonite (CaSi0 3 ), Am. Mineral. 
84, 1902-1905, 1999. 

Yang, H., and G T. Prewitt, Chain and 

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experimental approach to petrology, GSA Today 
8 (no. 5), 10-11, 1 998. (No reprints available.) 

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component of new multi-disciplinary sciences, 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, in press. 

2846 Young, E. D., R. D. Ash, P. England, and 
D. Rumble III, Fluid flow in chondritic parent 
bodies: deciphering the compositions of plan- 
etesimals, Science 286, I 33 I - 1 335, 1 999. 

Zha, C. S., H. K. Mao, and R J. Hemley, 

Elasticity of MgO and a primary pressure scale 
to 55 GPa, Proc. Natl. Acad. So. USA, in press. 

2875 Zhang, Y.-G., and J. D. Frantz, 
Enstatite-forsterite-water equilibria at elevated 
temperatures and pressures, Am. Mineral. 85, 
9 I 8-925, 2000. 

Zou, G, Y. Ma, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, 

and S. A. Gramsch, A diamond gasket for the 
laser-heated diamond anvil cell, Rev. Sci. Instivm., 
in press. 


page 36 I YEAR BOOK^p- VO 

Department of Plant Biology 


YEAR BOOK pp~ 00 page 57 



n January 2000, the scientific journal Cell 
marked the arrival of the new century by publish- 
ing a series of articles reflecting on the progress 
made in biology during the past century. I was 
invited to summarize the major advances in plant 
biology during that period — a task I subsequently 
realized was out of all proportion to the available 
space or time allotted. Forced to be succinct, I 
settled on six major advances: the discoveries of 
transposons, phytohormones, and phytochromes; 
the elucidation of the mechanisms that support 
photosynthesis; several advances in plant pathol- 
ogy, such as the crystallization of the tobacco 
mosaic virus and the formulation of the gene-for- 
gene hypothesis; and the experimental demonstra- 
tion of the relative contributions of heredity and 
adaptation in controlling phenotype. It is hearten- 
ing to note that at least two of these advances — 
the discovery of transposons and understanding 
phenotype — are associated with former Carnegie 
Staff Member Barbara McClintock and the col- 
laborative team of Staff Members Jens Clausen, 
David Keck, and William Hiesey. In addition, for 
much of the century, the Carnegie Department of 
Plant Biology was a leading center for research on 
photosynthesis. The founding director of the 
department, Herman Spoehr, was one of the lead- 
ing figures of his time in this study, as was his suc- 

cessor, Stacy French, and many other Staff 
Members over the years. 

Another major advance in plant biology, the study 
of phytochrome and other photoreceptors, has also 
been a long-standing strength of the department. 
This is due in large part to the work of director 
emeritus Winslow Briggs. During the past several 
years, Winslow and his collaborators have discov- 
ered the molecular mechanisms that underlie the 
ability of plants to bend toward blue light (Fig. 1). 
This phototropic response was discovered by 
Charles Darwin and his son Francis and in 1897 
was published in the book The Power of Movement 
in Plants. Approximately one hundred years after 

flavin -cysteinyl adduct 

Fig. I. This image shows light sensing by the LOV domains of 
phototropin. Purified LOV 2 oat phototropin is under UV light 
(left). To the right is a representation illustrating the pro- 
posed light-induced formation of a C (4a)-thiol adduct 
between the FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine 
residue within the LOV domain. 


Left: This is a three-dimensional reconstruction of a living Arabidopsis embryo visualized with a cCDA::GFP fusion protein that 
highlights the plasma membrane of each cell. (Courtesy David Ehrhardt, Department of Plant Biology.) 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

this phenomenon was described, Briggs and a team 
of students and postdocs cloned a gene that com- 
plemented a mutation of Arabidopsis that was 
unable to respond to blue light. This gene encodes 
a novel protein called phototropin that is able to 
absorb quanta of blue light through the presence of 
a bound flavin. When expressed in insect cells, the 
protein exhibits blue-light regulated kinase activity. 
The implication of this discovery is that the first 
step in photo tropism is light activation of the 
kinase, which then phosphorylates one or more pro- 
teins to alter their properties. Because of the attenu- 
ation of the light by absorption and reflection by the 
plant tissue, the irradiance would be expected to be 
highest in the cells nearest the incident light. 
Presumably this leads to a higher concentration of 
kinase activity on the side of the plant nearest the 
light, and this in turn leads to activation or inactiva- 
tion of other processes causing the plant to bend 
toward the light. Although much remains to be 
learned about the growth process, the essential 
details of the initial steps of the sensory 
mechanism now seem to be understood. (See 
frame.html for more information.) 

Algae and cyanobacteria also undergo many 
adaptive changes in response to changes in the 
quality or quantity of light. This subject has been 
a long-standing interest for Staff Member Arthur 
Grossman. Several years ago Grossman and 
collaborators made the surprising discovery that 
cyanobacteria contain a protein that is structurally 
related to the plant photoreceptor phytochrome. 
Recently, Grossman and collaborator Devaki 
Bhaya have implicated a phytochrome-like protein 
in a mechanism by which cyanobacteria move 
toward light, a response that resembles the 
phototropic response of higher plants. 

The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis 
PCC6803 uses pili for phototaxis. Type IV pili are 
proteinaceous surface appendages that are now 
implicated in a wide variety of bacterial activities, 
such as virulence in pathogenic bacteria, biofilm 
formation as well as surface-dependent motility in 
which cells use molecular motors to power gliding 
over a surface. By analyzing the genes that com- 
plement nonmotile mutants, Grossman and Bhaya 


Positive phototaxis 

Negative phototc 

Fig. 2. This series of images shows how the cyanobacterium 
Synechocystis reacts to a unidirectional light source. On the 
left, groups of wild-type cells aggregate into fingerlike projec- 
tions that move toward the light (positive phototaxis). A 
nonmotile mutant is shown in the middle; on the right, 
another mutant orients itself and moves away from the 
light source (negative phototaxis). 

discovered a number of regulatory elements, 
including a specific photoreceptor that links the 
light cue to motor operation. The photoreceptor is 
a hybrid protein that has one domain that is char- 
acteristic of a chromophore-binding domain from 
vascular plant phytochromes. It also has a second 
domain, which resembles the sensory transduction 
domain associated with chemotaxis proteins of 
bacteria. Interestingly, a mutant lacking this pho- 
toreceptor still responds to a unidirectional light 
source; but instead of moving toward the light, it 
moves backward (Fig. 2). This behavior suggests 
that at least one additional photoreceptor must be 
important for directional motility of cyanobacteria 
with respect to light. It is fascinating to compare 
how a similar photoreceptor has been used for 
widely different purposes in terrestrial plants and 
cyanobacteria by coupling different functional 
domains. Additional details of this work are 
available at http://www.carnegieinstitution. 

Progress on these problems and many others has 
been greatly facilitated by the recent advances in 
plant genomics. Work in the Grossman lab was 
accelerated by the availability of a complete 
genome sequence for Synechocystis PCC6803. The 
cloning of the phototropin gene by Briggs was also 
accomplished by using map-based cloning meth- 
ods that depend on the availability of high-resolu- 
tion genetic maps of Arabidopsis. The power of 
this approach was greatly improved this year by 
the release of the complete sequence of the 
Arabidopsis genome — a landmark achievement in 
plant biology. During the past 10 years, a large 


YEAR BOOK pp—OO I page 3p 

multinational effort worked on this sequence of 
about 130 million nucleotides — a testament to 
scientific collegiality. Despite the tremendous 
value of having access to large amounts of genome 
sequence, all of the groups involved in the effort 
released the data without delay or restrictions, 
and without filing patents on the genes. 

Now that the Arabidopsis sequence is available, a 
new 10-year project called The 2010 Project has 
been initiated. 1 The goal of this new international 
project is to determine the function of all higher 
plant genes by 2010. Arabidopsis has about 25,500 
genes. Currently, the function is known in detail 
for only about 1,000 of them. Thus, there is an 
enormous task ahead. However, it must be said 
that when the Arabidopsis genome sequence project 
began in 1989, that task too appeared to be daunt- 
ing. A lesson from that project was the understand- 
ing that it is very stimulating to set high goals — 
the challenges they present elicit creative solutions 
from the scientific community and lead to advances 
that would probably not take place otherwise. 

It is axiomatic that scientific discoveries cannot be 
planned but arise unexpectedly from individuals 
following the imperatives of personal curiosity. 
While many discoveries seem to obey this rule, it 
is also true that great progress has been made in 
many fields by providing support for scientists 
working toward specific large goals. The mappings 
of Mars and Venus are examples where large num- 
bers of scientists mobilized to solve specific scien- 
tific and technical challenges. Indeed, large-scale 


Fig. 3. Among the projects on gene identification at the 
department, the Chris Somerville lab has characterized an 
Arabidopsis mutation called MONOPOLE. A wild-type embryo 
is shown on the left; the mutant is on the right. The monopole 
mutant is characterized by a defect in the organization of 
the lower half of the embryo caused by abnormalities in a 
fundamental ability to specify the identity of each cell. 

Fig. 4. Members of The Arabidopsis Information Resource 
(TAIR) team from Carnegie are shown here. From left are 
Margarita Garcia-Hernandez, Eva Huala, Lukas Mueller, 
Sue Rhee, and Leonore Reiser. The following Carnegie team 
members are not shown: J. Joon, Bengt Anell, Aisling Doyle, 
and Chris Somerville. 

projects work best when they are focused around 
technical goals. In fact, it is technical accomplish- 
ments that can be planned, rather than discovery 
per se. In this respect, The 2010 Project is a tech- 
nical program that will enable discoveries by the 
plant biology community such as those made 
recently by Grossman, Briggs, and colleagues. 

The Department of Plant Biology is currently 
involved in several other aspects of plant genome 
projects. Arthur Grossman is part of a consortium 
that is working toward developing a fiill suite of 
genomic tools for Chlamydomonas. Staff associate 
Sue Rhee and her colleagues have developed a major 
new database called The Arabidopsis Information 
Resource (TAIR) that provides access to all aspects 
of Arabidopsis genome information (http://www. (Fig. 4). Finally, Shauna 
Somerville is part of a consortium that provides 
access to DNA microarrays for the plant community 
( Although this department 
may continue to participate to some extent in 
helping reach the technical goals of The 2010 
Project, the main emphasis of the molecular biology 
groups will continue to be on using the tools that 
are developed to understand key processes in plant 
adaptation, growth, and development. I believe 
that with the availability of these new tools we are 
entering a period of unparalleled progress in under- 
standing the mechanistic aspects of plant biology. 

— Christopher Somerville 

Somerville, C. and J. Dangl, Plant Biology in 2010, Science 290, 2077- 
2078, 2000. 


page 40 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

artment of Plant Biology Personnel 

July I, 1999 -June 30, 2000 

Research Staff Members 

Joseph A. Berry 

Olle E. Bjorkman, Emeritus 

Winslow R. Briggs, Director Emeritus 

Christopher B. Field 

Arthur R. Grossman 

Christopher R. Somerville, Director 

Shauna C. Somerville 

Staff Associates 

David Ehrhardt 

Seung Y. Rhee, Director, The Arabidopsis information 
Resource (TAIR) i 

Visiting Investigators 

Farhah Assaad, University of Munich 
Isabell Buttron, University of Freiburg 2 
Chiung-Wen Chang, Sanjose State University 37 
Pamela Green, University of Michigan' 
Masahiro Kasahara, University of Tokyo 
Kenneth Keegstra, Michigan State University' 
Gundolf Kohlmaier, University of Frankfurt 5 
Ann Krapp, University of Heidelberg 6 
Cathrin Mueller, University of Heidelberg 7 
Sharon Robinson, University of Wollongong 3 
Michael Salomon, University of Munich'' 
Norbert Sprenger, University of Zurich 10 
Fredrik Sterky, Wallenberg Foundation Fellow 18 
Mark Stitt, University of Heidelberg" 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Dominique Bergmann, DOE Research Associate 12 
Devaki Bhaya, USDA Research Associate 
Dario Bonetta, Carnegie Fellow' 3 
John Mackie Christie, NSF Research Associate 
Gert De Boer, DOE Research Associate 
Robert Ewing, NSF Research Associate' 
David Finkelstein, NSF Biological Informatics Fellow 14 
Greg Galloway, NSF Research Associate 2 ' 
Jeremy Gollub, NSF Research Associate 15 
Chung-Soon Im, NSF Research Associate 
Jorg Kaduk, DOE Research Associate 
Deepak Khatry, NSF Research Associate 
Wolfgang Lukowitz, DOE Research Associate 
Margaret Olney, NSF Research Associate' 6 
Dana L. Parmenter, DOE Research Associate 
Katrma Ramonell, NSF Research Associate 

Miguel Ribas-Carbo, Carnegie Research Associate 

Todd Richmond, DOE Research Associate 

Matthias Rillig, Carnegie Research Associate' 7 

Koji Sakamoto, NSF Research Associate 

Wolf Ruediger Scheible, DFC Fellow 

John Sedbrook, NIH Fellow 

Rebecca Shaw, NSF Research Associate 

Trevor Swartz, Carnegie Fellow^ 

Susan S. Thayer, NSF Research Associate 

Chao-Jung Tu, Carnegie Research Associate 

Lon van Waasbergen, NSF Fellow 18 

John Vogel, NIH Fellow 

Shu-Hsing Wu, NSF Research Associate 

Predoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Aurelie Andre, Ecole Normale Supeheur, France'' 1 

Sean Cutler, Stanford University 

Dafna Elrad, Stanford University 

Stewart Gillmor, Stanford University 

Laura Hoffman, Stanford University 

Chris Lund, Stanford University 

Marc Nishimura, Stanford University 

Johanna Polsenberg, Stanford University 

Celine Schiff, National Institute of Agronomy, France 

Monica Stein, Stanford University 37 

Chris Still, Stanford University 

Erika Zavaleta, Stanford University 

Supporting Staff 

Pinky Amin, Laboratory Technician 20 
Cesar R. Bautista, Horticulturist 
Kathryn Bump, Administrative Assistant 
Sarah Fisher, Laboratory Assistant 2 ' 
Glenn A. Ford, Laboratory Manager 
Margarita Garcia-Hernandez, Curator 1 
Stephen Gross, Laboratory Technician 
Chris Henderson, Assistant Programmer 21 
Eva Huala, Head Curator' 
Gloria Ison, Receptionist 22 
John Jacobson, Greenhouse Assistant 23 
Natalia Kalinina, Laboratory Assistant 
Roheena Kamyar, Laboratory Technician" 
Paul Laddis, Laboratory Assistant 25 
Angela Lu, Laboratory Assistant 
Barbara March, Bookkeeper 
Eriko Miura, Laboratory Technician 
Barbara Mortimer, Laboratory Technician 
Lukas Mueller, Curator 26 
Frank Nicholson, Facilities Manager 

Warren Nott, Laboratory Assistant 2 
Kalpana Pachipala, Laboratory Assistant 27 
Patti Poindexter, Laboratory Technician 
Benjamin Poulter, Laboratory Technician 14 
Hector Pulido, Maintenance Technician 
Pedro F. Pulido, Maintenance Technician 
Leonore Reiser, Curator 28 
Adrienne Roeder, Laboratory Assistant 29 
Serafima Romanovskaya, Laboratory Assistant 3 ' 
Georgina Salazar, Laboratory Assistant 3 ' 
Connie K. Shih, Senior Laboratory Technician 
Jennifer Silva, Laboratory Assistant 32 
Jon Slenk, Programmer 33 
Mary A. Smith, Business Manager 
Lalitha Subramanian, Systems Analyst 34 
Akiko Takahashi, Laboratory Technician 35 
Mary Varela, Laboratory Assistant 36 
Jo-Man Wang, Laboratory Technician 37 
Irene Yang, Laboratory Assistant 26 
Ling Zhang, Laboratory Technician 

From September I, 1999 
From April 1 0, 2000 

From November 7, 1 999 to December 7, 1999 
From January 1 0, 2000 to March 3 1 , 2000 
From April 1 2, 1 999 to February 28, 2000 
From March 1 7, 2000 to April 1 7, 2000 
From March 22, 2000 to Apnl 1 7, 2000 
From November I, 1999 to December 10, 1999 
From October 1 , 1 999 to November 1 5, 1 999 
1 To January 1 , 2000 
From March 27, 2000 
From May 1 5, 2000 
From November 12, 1999 
From November 1 , 1 999 
From February 1 , 2000 
From May 1 , 2000 
To August 24, 1999 
To January 3 1 , 2000 
From February 28, 2000 
'To December 3 1, 1999 
From March 22, 2000 
From Febmary 22, 2000 to May 30. 2000 
From August 7, 1 999 
From October 1 , 1 999 
From January 3 1 , 2000 
From June 1 9, 2000 
To October 1 5. 1 999 
From December 1 , 1 999 
To August 31, 1999 
To July 1 5, 2000 
To September 30, 1999 

From September 23. 1 999 to February 29, 2000 
From July 1 , 1 999 to January 2 1 , 2000 
From June I 2. 2000 

From January 1 5, 2000 to August 3 1 , 2000 
To October 31, 1999 
From July 1 , 1 999 
From January I 1 , 2000 
From Apnl 3, 2000 

Department of Plant Biology Bibliography 

;arnegie institution 

YEAR BOOK pp— 00 I page 41 

Here updated through December 29, 2000. Reprints of the numbered publications listed below can be obtained at 
no charge from the Department of Plant Biology, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, California 94305. Please give reprint 
number(s) when ordering. 

1436 Bhaya, D„ N. R. Bianco, D. Bryant, and 

A. Grossman, Type IV pilus biogenesis and 
motility in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 
PCC6803, Mol. Microbiol. 37, 94 1 -95 1 , 2000. 

1 476 Bhaya, D„ R. Schwarz, and A. R. 
Grossman, Molecular responses to environ- 
mental stress, in Ecology of Cyanobacteria: 
Diversity in Time and Space, M. Potts and 

B. Whitton, eds., pp. 397-442, Kluwer, 
Dordrecht, 2000. 

1436 Bhaya, D., D. Vaulot, P. Amin, A. 
Takahashi, and A. Grossman, The isolation 
of regulated genes in the cyanobacterium 
Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using differential 
display,/ Baa 182, 5692-5699, 2000. 

1 46 1 Bnggs, W. R, J. M. Christie, and M. 
Salomon, Phototropins: a new family of 
flavin-binding blue light receptors in plants, 
J. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, in press. 

1484 Canadell, J. G., H. A. Mooney, D. D. 
Baldocchi, J. A. Berry, J. R. Ehleringer, C. B. Field, 
S. T Gower, D. Y. Hollinger, J. E. Hunt, R B. 
Jackson, S. W. Running, G. R. Shaver, W. 
Steffen, S. E. Trumbore, R. Valentini, and B. Y. 
Bond, Carbon metabolism of the terrestrial 
biosphere: a multitechnique approach for 
improved understanding, Ecosystems 3, 115- 
I 30, 2000. 

1468 Chory; J., J. R. Ecker, S. Bnggs, M. 
Caboche, G. M. Coruzzi, D. Cook, J. Dangl, S. 
Grant, M. L Guennot, S. Henikoff, R. 
Martienssen, K. Okada, N. V. Raikhel, C R 
Somerville, and D. Weigel, A blueprint for 
understanding how plants are built and how 
to improve them (National Science 
Foundation-sponsored workshop report: 
The 2010 Project), Plant Physiol. 123, 423-426, 

1462 Christie, J. M„ and W. R. Briggs, Blue light 
sensing in higher plants (minireview),/ Biol. 
Chem., submitted, 2000. 

1464 Cutler, S. R, D. W. Ehrhardt, J. S. 
Griffitts, and C. R. Somerville, Random 
GFP::cDNA fusions enable visualization of 
subcellular structures in cells of Arabidopsis at a 
high frequency, Proc. Natl. Acad. So. U.S.A. 97, 

1419 Dukes, j., and C Field, Diverse mecha- 
nisms for C0 2 effects on grassland litter 
decomposition, Global Change Biol. 6, 1 45- 1 54, 

1482 Field, C B, and N. R. Chiariello, Global 
change and the terrestrial carbon cycle: the 
Jasper Ridge C0 2 experiment, in Earth Systems: 
Processes and Issues, W. G. Ernst, ed.,. pp. 297- 
3 1 4, Cambndge University Press, Stanford, 
Calif, 2000. 

1 439 Grossman, A., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
and photosynthesis: genetics and genomics, 
Curr. Opm. Plant Biol. 3, I 32- 1 37, 2000. 

1448 Grossman, A., Transformation of fila- 
mentous cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, 
in Electrotransformation of Bacteria, N. Eynard 
and J. Teissie, eds., Springer- Verlag, 2000. 

1 45 I Grossman, A., The responses of 
Chlamydomonas to nutrient limitation, Protista 
151, 201-224, 2000. 

1 477 Grossman, A., The need for molecular 
technologies to address biological processes in 
the algae: the use of transformation for studies 
of the diatom cell surface,/ Phycol. 35, 3-6, 1999. 

1 483 Hungate, B. A, C H. Yaeger III, G. 
Gamara, F. S. Chapin III, and C B. Field, Soil 
microbiota in two annual grasslands: responses 
to elevated atmospheric C0 2 , Oecologia 1 24, 
589-598, 2000. 

1485 Jackson, R B., H. J. Schenck, E. G. Jobagy, 
J. Canadell, G. D. Colello, R E. Dickinson, C B. 
Field, P. Friedlingstein, M. Heimann, K. Hibbard, 
D. W. Kicklighter, A. Kleidon, R P. Neilson, W. 
J. Parton, O. E. Sala/and M. T. Sykes, Below- 
ground consequences of vegetation change 
and their treatment in models, Ecological 
Applications 10, 470-483, 2000. 

1443 Joel, G., F. S. Chapin III, N. R. Chiariello, 
S. S. Thayer, and C, B. Field, Species specific 
responses of plant communities to altered car- 
bon and nutrient availability, Global Change 
Ecol., submitted, 2000. 

1 428 Katoh, H, A. R Grossman, and T 
Ogawa, A gene of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 
encoding a novel iron transporter,/ Bact. 182, 
6523-6524, 2000. 

1440 Li, X., O. Bjorkman, C Shih, A. 
Grossman, M. Rosenquist, S. Jansson, and K. K. 
Niyogi, A chlorophyll-binding protein necessary 
for energy dissipation but not photosynthetic 
light harvesting, Nature 403, 39 1-395, 2000. 

1478 Nozue, K., J. M. Christie, T Kiyosue, W. 
R. Briggs, and M. Wada, Isolation and character- 
ization of a fern phototropin (accession no. 
AB037I88), a putative blue-light photoreceptor 
for phototropism, Plant Physiol. (Plant Gene 
Register) 1 22, 1 457, 2000. 

1 466 Rhee, S. Y., Bioinformatics resources, 
challenges, and opportunities using Arabidopsis 
as a model organism in a post-genomic era, 
Plant Physiol. 1 24, 1 460- 1 464, 2000. 

1479 Rhee, S. Y„ and D. J. Flanders, Web- 
based bioinformatic tools for Arabidopsis 
researchers, in Arabidopsis: A Practical Approach, 
Z. Wilson, ed., pp. 225-265, Oxford University 
Press, UK, 2000. 

I 376 Ribas-Carbo, S., A. Robinson, M. A. 
Gonzalez-Mieler, A. M. Lennon, L Giles, J. N. 
Siedow, and J. A. Berry, Effects of light on respi- 
ration and oxygen isotope fractionation in 
soybean cotyledons, Plant, Cell, and Environ. 23, 
983-989, 2000. 

1469 Richmond, T., and C R. Somerville, The 
cellulose synthase superfamily, Plant Physiol. 
124,495-498, 2000. 

1427 Richmond, T., and S. Somerville, Chasing 
the dream: plant EST microarrays, Curr. Opin. 
Plant Biol. 3, 1 08- 1 I 6, 2000. 

1444 Salomon, M„ J. M. Christie, E. Knieb, U. 
Lempert, and W. R. Briggs, Photochemical 
and mutational analysis of the FMN-binding 
domains of the plant blue-light receptor pho- 
totropin, Biochemistry 39, 940 1 -94 1 0, 2000. 

1 48 I Schenk, P. M., K. Kazan, I. Wilson, J. P. 
Anderson, T. Richmond, S. C. Somerville, and 
J. M. Manners, Coordinated plant defense 
responses in Arabidopsis revealed by microarray 
analysis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sa. U.S.A. 97, I 1,655- 
I 1 ,660, 2000. 

1473 Somerville, C R„ The genetically 
modified organism conflict, Plant Physiol. 123, 
I 20 1 - 1 202, 2000. 

1467 Somerville, C. R., The 20 th century trajec- 
tory of plant biology, Cell 1 00, I 3-25, 2000. 

1470 Somerville, C R., J. Browse, J. C. Jaworski, 
and J. Ohlrogge, Lipids, in Biochemistry and 
Molecular Biology of Plants, B. Buchanan, W. 
Gruissem, and R.Jones, eds., pp. 456-526, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 
Rockville, Md., 2000. 

1472 Somerville, C R, and j. Dangl, Plant biol- 
ogy in 2010, Science 290, 2077-2078, 2000. 

1420 Sukenik, A., A. Livne, K. E. Apt, and A. R. 
Grossman, Characterization of a gene encoding 
the light-harvesting violaxanthin-chlorophyll 
protein of the marine eustigmatophyte 
Nannochloropsis sp.J. Phycol. 36, 563, 2000. 

1 47 1 The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 
Analysis of the genome sequence of the 
flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, Nature 

1 426 Vogel, J., and S. G Somerville, Isolation 
and characterization of powdery mildew-resis- 
tant Arabidopsis mutants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 
U.S.A. 97, 1897-1902,2000. 

1480 Wilson, I. W„ and S. C Somerville, 
Isolation and characterization of disease resis- 
tance genes in Arabidopsis, in Plant-Microbe 
Interactions, Vol. 3, G. Stacey and N. T Keen, 
eds., pp. 1 4 1 - 1 80, Chapman and Hall, New 
York, 2000. 

1 44 1 Zasavskaia, L A., J. C Lippmeier, 
P. G. Kroth, A. R. Grossman, and K. E. Apt, 
Transformation of the diatom Phaeodactylum 
tricornutum with a variety of selectable marker 
and reporter genes, J. Phycol. 36, 379, 2000. 


page 42 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

_ • -■ # • ■ • - 

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Department of Embryology 


YEAR BOOK pp— 00 page 43 


100 YEARS." 

enetic studies that focus on entire genomes, 
a field now known as genomics, are engaging 
widespread public interest in biological research. 
Genomics strives to discover all of an organism's 
genes, and to determine their chromosomal 
location, structure, regulation, expression, and 
function. Making this information publicly 
available in large databases allows biologists to 
undertake powerful new approaches to previously 
intractable biological phenomena. A collection of 
technologies, including large-scale DNA sequenc- 
ing, software development, and the increasing use 
of automation, are greatly accelerating the speed 
and capabilities of gene-focused studies, driving 
this research toward a "postgenomic" era. This 
year alone, the gene-rich portion of the fruit fly 
(Drosophila) genome was sequenced, and the 
nearly finished human genome sequence will 
be published shortly. These developments 
unquestionably open many new opportunities for 
biological research and cause us to rejoice at our 
good fortune to be working as biologists at this 
particular point in history. 

Genomic research is frequently viewed by the 
public, and even in some scientific quarters, as a 
relatively new development. In reality, though, 
this institution and the Department of 
Embryology have been striving to decipher gene 
structure and function for most of the last 100 
years. The Carnegie Institution became involved 
in Drosophila genomics almost 90 years ago 
through its support of researchers in the Thomas 
H. Morgan laboratory at Columbia University. 
The intellectual program of classical genetics, as 
reflected in Morgan's research, set many of the 
same goals of gene discovery, mapping, and 
analysis that are today being realized using DNA 
sequences. Led by Calvin Bridges, then a Carnegie 
employee, Drosophila genomic information was 
compiled into some of the first genome databases 
and distributed to the public as Carnegie 
Institution of Washington (CIW) publications. 
Detailed summaries of genes on the X-chromo- 
somes (1915) and on chromosomes 2 (1919) and 
3 (1927) were released in CIW publications 
numbers 213, 278, and 327, respectively. In 1944, 
following the first detailed physical mapping of 
the genome using polytene chromosomes — also 

Left: This image shows photomicrographs of two Drosophila testes. The Matunis lab is searching for molecules that regulate stem cells by 
genetically removing candidate signaling molecules from testis tissue and examining any corresponding change in the number of stem cells. 
The smaller testis is a wild-type control with just a few stem cells at the apical end. In the larger testis, the STAT signaling has been overin- 
duced, resulting in the production of thousands of cells with stem-cell characteristics; these appear as bright green. This result 
suggests that Jak- Stat signaling instructs stem-cell fate, rather than maintaining cell viability. 


page 44 I YEAR BOOK pp—QO 

accomplished by Bridges — enhanced databases 
linking genes to specific chromosomal sites were 
distributed in CIW publication number 552. 
Later, in 1967, Dan Lindley and E. H. Grell 
released a further update as CIW publication 627. 
These later two works served for 50 years as indis- 
pensable preelectronic Drosophila Web sites with 
countless daily "hits" by active researchers. 

Identifying genes and describing their activity is 
unquestionably important, but analyzing gene 
function remains the critical element in gene-cen- 
tered biology. Research from this department, on 
several occasions, has accelerated this aspect of 
genomic research. Classically, the genes required 
for a particular physiological process are discovered 
by identifying mutations that prevent the process 
from occurring normally. To complete this "for- 
ward" genetic approach, it is necessary to decipher 
the molecular identities of the altered genes. In 
contrast, by first purifying genes, transcribing 
them in vitro, and assessing the effects of chemi- 
cally produced mutations, Don Brown's group 
forged one of the original templates for an alterna- 
tive or "reverse genetic" approach to understanding 
gene function. Today, with a plethora of genes 
defined only by their DNA sequence, reverse 
genetics is on its way to becoming the norm. 

To understand what roles genes play in a multicel- 
lular organism, genetically altered animals must be 
constructed in which the activity of individual 
genes can be experimentally controlled or elimi- 
nated. This task has been facilitated by current and 
former department Staff Members who developed 
methods for introducing altered DNA molecules 
into the genomes of Drosophila and the nematode 
Caenorhabditis. Creating methods to mutagenize 
the genomes of Arabidopsis or Drosophila using 
transposable elements has also helped. In the case 
of the fruit fly, this latter approach is continuing 
under the leadership of Dr. Robert Levis, who 
joined the department this year as a research scien- 
tist. Working with collaborators at the University 
of California at Berkeley (including former Staff 
Member Gerry Rubin), at the Salk Institute 
(including former postdoctoral fellow Gary 
Karpen), and at the Baylor College of Medicine, 



<i ppn 


Fig. I. The Halpern lab uses genetic approaches in the 
zebrafish to study how signaling pathways regulate the differ- 
entiation and patterning of the central nervous system. The 
top image shows a frontal view of a zebrafish embryo, with 
the eyes indicated by (e). The floating head gene is expressed 
on both sides of the forebrain, in the pineal organ (red). 
However, the pitx2 gene, while expressed on both sides of 
the brain ventrally, is only expressed on the left side dorsally 
(arrowhead). In the adult (bottom image), floating head 
expression persists in the stalk of the pineal organ (arrow- 
head), which in a normal fish typically emerges from the 
dorsal diencephalon at left to medial position. This work is 
providing new insights into the anatomical and functional 
differences between the left and right sides of the brain. 

Levis expects to identify mutations that inactivate 
or alter more than half of the 13,600 estimated 
Drosophila genes within the next two years. 
Additionally, Staff Member Marnie Halpern's 
group continues to generate zebrafish in which 
groups of adjacent genes throughout the genome 
have been deleted. The strains produced by both 
the Drosophila and zebrafish projects help 
researchers study gene function, and they are being 
provided to public stock centers for distribution. 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page 45 

One of the most versatile new methods for discov- 
ering what genes do was developed recently by 
Staff Member Andy Fire in collaboration with 
Dr. Craig Mello of the University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst. Their method of "RNA interference" 
allows gene transcripts to be inactivated within 
individual cells or in whole invertebrate organisms 
following uptake of complementary double- 
stranded RNA. The discovery by Fire and postdoc 
Lisa Timmons that a gene's activity can be shut 
down when worms simply ingest bacteria contain- 
ing the appropriate double-stranded RNA has 
made it possible to use RNAi to functionally 
screen large numbers of C. elegans genes. Several 
laboratories and start-up companies are currently 
racing to study all of the known Caenorhabditis 
genes using this method. Several other departmen- 
tal members, including graduate student Kan Cao 
and Staff Member Yixian Zheng, are using RNAi 
to downregulate specific Drosophila genes in tissue 
culture cells. Another group, led by Staff Associate 
Jim Wilhelm, is preparing to expand this approach 
so that the entire roster of fruit-fly genes can be 
scanned for their effects on any cellular process of 
interest. In addition to its speed and simplicity, 
RNAi promises to allow experimenters to shut off 
multiple genes located in different chromosomes 
simultaneously. This has been difficult to do using 
traditional methods and greatly facilitates the 
discovery of gene interactions and pathways. 

The need for detailed information on genome 
structure and for tediously acquired mutant collec- 
tions has caused biologists to focus on a relatively 
small number of "model" organisms. These 
include flies, worms, mice, zebrafish, and yeast. 
One unfortunate side effect of this trend has been 
to discourage gene-based research into problems 
that are better studied in species lying outside this 
narrow group. However, advancing genomic tech- 
nology is now creating opportunities for gene- 
based studies within nontraditional organisms. 
Staff Associate Alejandro Sanchez and postdoc 
Phil Newmark have taken the flatworm planaria, 
an organism that lacked modern genomic 
resources, and in just three years have generated 
the tools needed for sophisticated genetic studies, 
including genome-wide surveys of gene expression. 
Planaria exhibit unparalleled powers of regenera- 


Fig. 2. This image shows the use of transgenic technology 
to track a single cell lineage during development. In these 
animals, C. elegans, production of a reporter protein (indi- 
cated by the blue color) is driven by control signals from the 
hlh-8 gene (normally expressed in a specific mesodermal cell 
lineage, the M lineage). Members of the Fire lab use animals 
from this transgenic line to accurately assess the fate of cells 
derived from the M lineage. 

Fig. 3. Alejandro Sanchez and Phil Newmark study the flat- 
worm Schmidtea mediterranea. This series shows what happens 
to the worm under feeding and starving conditions. With 
continuous feeding the planarian will grow and may reach 
a length of up to 20 mm. Without food it will "degrow," 
eventually attaining a length of less than 0.5 mm. Remarkably, 
this degrowth does not affect form or biological functions, 
which shows the existence of an exquisite homeostatic con- 
trol of cell proliferation and cell death. Identifying and charac- 
terizing the molecular and cellular components regulating this 
function may help us understand how differentiation of tissues 
is attained, maintained, and regenerated. 




tion that have attracted scientific interest for more 
than 100 years. Sanchez and Newmark discovered 
that planarian genes can be inactivated using 
RNAi and have used their new tools to identify 
candidate genes that seem to be important for 
regeneration. Their work, along with other ongo- 
ing projects in the department, continues the 
Carnegie Institution's long tradition of genomic 
studies and expands it to encompass an ever 
broader collection of organisms and phenomena. 

News of the Department 

Our seminar program was highlighted by the 23 rd 
annual minisymposium entitled "Meiosis." Anne 
Villeneuve (Stanford University), Kim McKim 
(Waksman Institute, Rutgers University), Michael 
Lichten (National Institutes of Health), Patricia 
Hunt (Case Western Reserve University), Kelly 
Dawe (University of Georgia), and Barry 
Ganetzky (University of Wisconsin) each 
presented one-hour talks. 

Support of research in the department comes from 
a wide variety of sources. Doug Koshland, Yixian 
Zheng and I, and various members of our labora- 
tories are employees of the Howard Hughes 
Medical Institute. Others are grateful recipients of 
individual grants from the National Institutes of 
Health, the John Merck Fund, the G. Harold and 
Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation, the 
American Cancer Society, the Cancer Research 
Fund of the Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell 
Foundation, the Pew Scholars Program, the 
National Science Foundation, and the Helen Hay 
Whitney Foundation. We remain indebted to the 
Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust for its support. 

— Allan Spradttng 

Members of the Department of Embryology, November 2000. First row (from left): Yixian Zheng, Phil Newmark, 
Bill Kupiec, Bob Levis, Allen Strause, Alexi Tulin, Dianne Stewart, Olivia Doyle, Mark Milutinovich, Chen-Ming Fan, 
Andy Fire, Hoi Yeung Li, Steve Tsang, Ming-Ying Tsai, Ben Remo, Alejandro Sanchez Alvarado, Heather Henry, 
Sasha Tsvetkov, Tom McDonaugh. Second row: Allan Spradling, Horacio Frydman, Andy Wilde, Alex Schreiber, Josh 
Gamse, Mike Sepanski, Don Brown, Terence Murphy, Jim Wilhelm. Third row: Kan Cao, Allison Pinder, Lijun Zhang, 
Erika Matunis, Marnie Halpern, Rachel Cox, Toshi Kai, Hongjuan Gao, Alice Chen, Ru Gunawardane, Glenese 
Johnson. Fourth row: Pat Cammon, Ellen Cammon, Ona Martin, Chris Murphy, Christine Norman, Ella Jackson, 
Sofia Robb, Jennifer Prowell, Jie Deng, Eileen Hogan, Hui Jin, Chiyoko Kobayashi, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa, 
Audrey Huang, Bruce Hodess, Rejeanne Juste, Nicole Mozden, Craig Garafola, Sofia Lizarraga, Lisa Timmons, Judith 
Yanowitz, Kelly Liu, Jamie Fleenor, Chris Wiese, Liquan Cai. Fifth row: Hong-Guo Yu, Zheng'an Wu, Melissa Pepling, 
Joe Gall, Tim Mical, Amy Hennessey, Sandra Kneissel, Shin-ichi Kawaguchi, Michelle Macurak, Biswajit Das, 
Rachel Brewster, Eleni Goshu, Ronald Roane, Tavon Burton. 

July I, 1999 -June 30, 2000 

Embryology Personnel 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page 47 

Research Staff Members 

Donald D. Brown 
Chen-Ming Fan 
Andrew Z. Fire 
Joseph G. Gal] 
Marnie Halpern 
Douglas E. Koshland 
Allan C, Spradling, Director 
Yixian Zheng 

Staff Associates 

Jimo Borjigm 
Erika Matunis 
Terence Murphy 
Alejandro Sanchez Alvarado 
Jim Wilhelm 1 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Michel Bellini, Morkey Charitable Trust 
Rachel Cox, Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Fellow 
Biswajit Das, Mathers Charitable -Foundation (Brown) 
Maggie de Cuevas, Howard Hughes Research 

Associate, NIH Grant (Spradling) 2 
Daniela Drummond-Barbosa, NIH Fellow, Carnegie 

Fellow, Howard Hughes Research Associate 
Steve Farber, NIH Fellow, Carnegie Fellow 3 
Shannon Fisher, NIH Fellow, Carnegie Fellow' 
Nicole Grieder, European Molecular Biology 

Organization, Carnegie Fellow 5 
Toshie Kai, Japan Science and Technology 

Corporation - Overseas Research Fellowship 6 
William Kelly, NIH Grant (Fire) 7 
Shika Laloraya, ^Howard Hughes Research Associate- 
Brigitte Lavoie, Canadian Research Council, Carnegie 

Fellow, NIH Grant (Koshland) 
Jennifer Liang, NIH Fellow, Markey Charitable Trust, 

Carnegie Fellow 
Kelly Liu, NIH Fellow, Carnegie Fellow 
Ying Liu, Markey Charitable Trust* 
Nick Marsh-Armstrong, NIH Grant (Brown) 
Paul Megee, Howard Hughes Research Associate, 

NIH Grant (Koshland) 
Timothy Mical, Carnegie Fellow, Markey Charitable 

Phil Newmark, NIH Fellow 
Melissa Pepling, Howard Hughes Research Associate 
Amy Rubinstein, NIH Fellow, Carnegie Fellow, 

Markey Charitable Trust" 
Alex Schreiber, Markey Charitable Trust, NIH Fellow 
Lisa Timmons, NIH Fellow, Carnegie Fellow 
Alexei Tulin, Howard Hughes Research Associate 
Zengfeng Wang, Howard Hughes Research Associate 
Christiane Wiese, Markey Charitable Trust, American 

Cancer Society, Carnegie Fellow 
Andrew Wilde, Carnegie Fellow 
Zheng'an Wu, Spec/a/ Investigator, NIH Grant (Gall) 
Ting Xie, Howard Hughes Research Associate' 
Judith Yanowitz, NIH Grant (Fire), NIH Fellow'" 

Predoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Rosa Alcazar, Johns Hopkins University 
Laura Buttitta, Johns Hopkins University 
Kan Cao, Johns Hopkins University 
Alice Chen, Johns Hopkins University 
Olivia Doyle, Johns Hopkins University 

Horacio Frydman, Johns Hopkins University 
Ru Gunawardane, Johns Hopkins University 
Korie Handwerger, Johns Hopkins University 
Dongli Huang, Johns Hopkins University 
Steve Kostas, Johns Hopkins University 
Sofia Lizarraga, Johns Hopkins University 
Gregory Marques, Johns Hopkins University 
Mark Milutinovich, Johns Hopkins University 
Susan Parrish, Johns Hopkins University 

Supporting Staff 

Betty Addison, Laboratory Helper 

Kristin Belschner, Photographer (PIT) I Amphibian 

Facility Technician (PIT) 
Tavon Burton, Fish Facility Technician" 
Ellen Cammon, Laboratory Helper 
Patricia Cammon, Laboratory Helper 
Jie Deng, Technician 

Pat Englar, Director's Administrative Assistant 
Rachel Fasnacht, Technician' 
Jamie Fleenor, Technician 
Craig Garafola, Technician' 2 
Eleni Goshu, Animal Care Technician 
Amy Hennessey, fish Facility Technician 
Linda Henry, Administrative Assistant 
Bruce Hodess, Animal Care Technician 
Eileen Hogan, Sen/or Technician 
Ella Jackson, Laboratory Helper 
Connie Jewell, Graphic Artist 
Hui Jin, Technician 1 -■ 
Glenese Johnson, Laboratory Helper 
Rejeanne Juste, Technician 
Susan Kern, Business Manager 
Bill Kupiec, Computer Systems Manager 
Tong Tong Liu, Technician" 
Michelle Macurak, Technician 
Ona Martin, Senior Technician 
Noah May, Technician M 
Tom McDonaugh, Facilities Manager 15 
Ronald Millar, Building Engineer^ 
Cathy Mistrot, Technician 
Nicole Mozden, Technician 
Christine Murphy, Senior Technician 
Christine Norman, Howard Hughes Medical 

Institute Research Secretary 
Allison Pinder, Research Technician III 
Earl Potts, Custodian 
Benjamin Remo, Technician 
Ronald Roane, Animal Care Technician 
Sofia Robb, Technician 17 
Deborah Sadler, Animal Care Technician'* 
Michael Sepanski, Electron Microscopy Technician 
Loretta Steffy, Accounting Assistant 
Erin Sterner, Laboratory Helper 
Dianne Stewart, Research Technician III 
Allen Strause, Machinist 
Natalia Tulina, Technician 
John Watt, Librarian 
Lijun Zhang, Technician 

Visiting Investigators and 

Kiyokazu Agata, Okayama University, Japan 
Hugo Bellen, Baylor College of Medicine 
Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Gene Expression 
Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies 

Francesc Cebria, University of Barcelona 
Kristen Crossgrove, Loyola College of Maryland 
Paul Henion, Neurobiotechnology Center, Ohio 

State University 
Phil Hieter, Department of Molecular Biology and 

Genetics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine 
Andrew Hoyt, Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins 

Casonya Johnson, Morgan State University 
Gary Karpen, Salk Institute for Biological Studies 
Chiyoko Kobayashi, Okayama University, Japan 
Michael Krause, National Institutes of Health 
Craig Mello, University of Massachusetts 
Karen Oegema, European Molecular Biology 

Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany 
Robert E. Palazzo, Department of Physiology and 

Cell Biology, University of Kansas 
Rafael Romero, University of Barcelona 
Gerald M. Rubin, University of California, Berkeley 
Bernard Thisse, Institut de Genetique et de Biologie 

Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 

Christine Thisse, Institut de Genetique et de Biologie 

Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 

Alexander Tsvetkov, Institute of Cytology, Academy 

of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia 
David A. Weisblat, University of California, Berkeley 

From May 22, 2000 
2 To July 3 1 . 1999 
' To December 3 1 , 1999 
■' To February 29, 2000 
s To Apnl 6, 2000 
' From October 1 8, 1 999 
; To December 7. 1999 
" From August 2, 1 999 
' To June 30, 2000 

10 From September 1 , 1 999 

11 From June 26, 2000 
l! From December 6, 1999 
IJ From June 15,2000 
"'To May 1,2000 

•' From March 27, 2000 
' To March 3 1 , 2000 

7 From January 30, 2000 

8 From May 1 . 2000 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

Here updated through December 1 , 2000 

Adams, M. D„ S. E. Celniker. R. A. Holt, C. A. 
Evans, J. D. Gocayne, P. G. Amanatides, S. E. 
Scherer, P. W. Li, R. A. Hoskms, R. F. Galle, R. 
A. George, S. E. Lewis, S. Richards, M. 
Ashbumer, S. N. Henderson, G G. Sutton, 
J, R Wortman, M. D. Yandell, Q. Zhang, L X. 
Chen, R C. Brandon, Y. H. Rogers, R. G. Blazej, 
M. Champe, B, D. Pfeiffer, K. H. Wan, C. Doyle, 
E. G Baxter, G. Helt, C R. Nelson, G L 
Gabon J. F. Abril, A. Agbayani, H. J. An, C. 
Andrews-Pfannkoch, D. Baldwin, R. M. Ballew, 

A. Basu, J. Baxendale, L Bayraktaroglu, 
E. M. Beasley, K. Y. Beeson, P. V. Benos, 

B, P. Berman, D. Bhandan, S. Bolshakov, D. 
Borkova, M. R. Botchan, J. Bouck, P. Brokstein, 
P. Brottier, K. C. Burtis, D. A. Busam, H. Butler, 
E. Cadieu, H. O. Smith, R. A. Gibbs, 

E. W. Myers, G M, Rubin, J, C. Venter, 
et al.,The genome sequence of Drosophila 
melanogaster, Science 287, 2 1 85-2 1 95, 2000. 

Borjigin, J., X. Sun, and M. M. Wang, The role 
of PINA in copper transport, circadian rhythms, 
and Wilson disease, in Handbook of Copper 
Pharmacology and Toxicology, Humana Press, 
Totowa, N.J., in press. 

Caplen, N., J. Fleenor, A. Fire, and R. A. 
Morgan, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in 
cultured Drosophila cells: a tissue culture model 
for the analysis of RNA interference, Gene 252, 

Corsi, A., S. Kostas, A. Fire, and M. Krause, 
Caenorhabditis elegans Twist plays an essential 
role in non-striated muscle development, 
Development 127, 204 1 -205 1 , 2000. 

Dichoso, D„ T. Brodigan, J.-S. Lee, K.-Y. 
Chwoe, R. Llacer, S. Kostas, A. Fire, J.-H. Ahnn, 
and M. Krause, The MADS box containing fac- 
tor Cemef-2 is not required for normal myoge- 
nesis and development, Developmental Biology 

Elinson, R. P., B. Remo, and D. D. Brown, 
Novel structural elements during tail resorption 
in Xenopus metamorphosis: lessons from tailed 
frogs, Dev. Biol. 215, 243-252, 1999. 

Gall, J. G., Cajal bodies: the first 1 00 years, Ann. 
Rev. Cell Devel. Biol. 1 6, 273-300, 2000. 

Gall, J. G, M. Bellini, Z. Wu, and C Murphy, 
Assembly of the nuclear transcription and pro- 
cessing machinery: Cajal bodies (coiled bodies) 
and transcriptosomes, Mol. Biol. Cell 10, 4385- 
4402, 1999. 

Gall, J. G., and R. Mcintosh, eds., Landmark 
Papers in Cell Biology. American Society for Cell 
Biology and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 
Press, 532 pp., 2000. 

Grieder, N. C, M. de Cuevas, and A. C. 
Spradling, The fusome organizes the micro- 
tubule network during oocyte differentiation in 
Drosophila, Devel. 127, 4253-4264, 2000. 

Gunawardane, R. N„ S. B. Lizarraga, C. Wiese, 
A. Wilde, and Y. Zheng, y-tubulin complexes 
and their role in microtubule nucleation, 
Current Topics in Devel. Biol. 49, 55-73, 2000. 

Gunawardane, R N„ O. C. Martin, K. Cao, L 
Zhang, K. Dej, A. Iwamatsu, and Y. Zheng, 
Characterization and reconstitution of 
Drosophila yTURC subunitsj. Cell Biol., 151, 

Halpern, M. E., and G. Seydoux, Embryo emer- 
gent: elucidating the cell biology of develop- 
ment (meeting review), EMBO Rev., in press. 

Hsieh, J., and A. Fire, Recognition and silencing 
of repeated DNA, Ann. Rev. Genetics 37, I 87- 
204, 2000. 

Hsieh, J., J. Liu, S. Kostas, C. Chang, P. 
Sternberg, and A. Fire, The RING fmger/B-Box 
factor TAM- 1 and a retinoblastoma-like protein 
LIN-35 modulate context-dependent gene 
silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genes Devel. 
1 3, 2958-2970, 1999. 

Huang, H., and D. D. Brown, Overexpression 
of Xenopus laevis growth hormone stimulates 
growth of tadpoles and frogs, Proc. Nat. Acad. 
So. 97, 190-194,2000. 

Huang, H., and D. D. Brown, Prolactin is not a 
juvenile hormone in Xenopus laevis metamor- 
phosis, Proc. Nat. Acad. So. 97, 195-199,2000. 

Koshland, D. E., and V. Guacci, Sister chromatid 
cohesion: the beginning of a long and beautiful 
relationship, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 1 2, 297-30 1 , 

Kostich, M., A. Fire, and D. Fambrough, 
Identification and molecular-genetic characteri- 
zation of a LAMP/CD68-like protein from 
Caenorhabditis elegans, J. Cell Science I 13, 2595- 
2606, 2000. 

Lavoie, B. D„ K. M. Tuffo, S. Oh, D. Koshland, 
and C. Holm, Mitotic chromosome condensa- 
tion requires Brn I p, the yeast homologue of 
barren, Mol. Biol. Cell I I, \ 293- 1 304, 2000. 

LeDouarin, N. M., and M. E. Halpern, Origin 
and specification of the neural tube floor plate: 
insights from the chick and zebrafish, Curr. 
Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 23-30, 2000. 

Liang, J. O, A. Etheridge, L Hantsoo, A. L 
Rubinstein, S. J. Nowak, J. C. Izpisua-Belmonte, 
and M. E. Halpern, Asymmetric nodal signaling 
in the zebrafish diencephalon positions the 
pineal organ, Development 1 27, 5 1 1 -5 I I 2, 

Lilly, M„ M. de Cuevas, and A. C Spradling, 
Cyclin A associates with the fusome during 
germline cyst formation in the Drosophila ovary, 
Dev. Biol. 2/8,53-63,2000. 

Liu, J., T Ben-Shahar, D. Riemer, M. Treinin, P. 
Spann, K. Weber, A. Fire, and Y. Gruenbaum, 
Essential roles for Caenorhabditis lamin in 
nuclear organization, mitotic progression, chro- 
mosome segregation, and spatial organization 
of nuclear pore complexes, Mol. Biol. Cell I I , 
3937-3947, 2000. 

Liu, J„ and A. Fire, Overlapping roles of two 
Hox genes and the exd ortholog ceh-20 in 
diversification of the C. elegans postembryonic 
mesoderm, Development 1 27, 5 1 79-5 1 90, 2000. 

Marsh-Armstrong, N., H. Huang, B. F. Remo, 
T. T. Liu, and D. D. Brown,. Asymmetric growth 
and development of the Xenopus laevis retina 
during metamorphosis is controlled by type-Ill 
deiodinase, Neuron 24, 871-878, 1999. 

Megee, P. G, C Mistrot, V. Guacci, and D. 
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Morgan, G. T., O. Doyle, C. Murphy, and 
J. G. Gall, RNA polymerase II in Cajal bodies 
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268, 2000. 

Newmark, P., and A. Sanchez Alvarado, 
Bromodeoxyuridine specifically labels the 
regenerative stem cells of planarians, Dev. 
Biol. 20, 142-153,2000. 

Parrish, S„ J. Fleenor, S. Xu, C Mello, and A. 
Fire, Functional anatomy of a dsRNA trigger: 
differential requirement for the two trigger 
strands in RNA interference, Molecular Cell 6, 
1 077- 1 087, 2000. 

Rubinstein, A. L, D. Lee, R. Luo, P. D. Henion, 
and M. E. Halpern, Genes dependent on 
zebrafish cyclops function identified by an AFLP 
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Sanchez Alvarado, A., The case for compara- 
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Regenerative Medicine 1 , 3 I -36, 2000. 

Sanchez Alvarado, A., Regeneration in the 
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578-590, 2000. 

Timmons, L, D. Court, and A. Fire, Ingestion 
of bacterially expressed dsRNAs can produce 
specific and potent genetic interference in 
Caenorhabditis elegans, Gene, in press. 

Wiese, G, and Y. Zheng, A new function for 
the y-tubulin ring complex as a microtubule 
minus-end cap, Nature Cell Biol. 2, 358-364, 

Wilde, A., S. B. Lizarraga, L Zhang, C. Wiese, 
N. R. Gliksman, C. E. Walczak, and Y. Zheng, 
Ran stimulates spindle assembly by changing 
microtubule dynamics and the balance of 
motor activities, Nature Cell Biol., in press. 

Xie, T., and A. G Spradling, A niche maintain- 
ing germ line stem cells in the Drosophila ovary, 
Science 290, 328-380, 2000. 

Yelon, D„ B. Ticho, M. E. Halpern, I. Ruvinsky, 
R K. Ho, L M. Silver, and D. Y. R Stainier, The 
bHLH transcription factor Hand2 plays parallel 
roles in zebrafish heart and pectoral fin devel- 
opment, Development 127, 2573-2582, 2000. 

Zhang, L, T. J. Keating, A. Wilde, G G. Borisy, 
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Biol., 151, 1525-1535,2000. 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO page ^ 


page JO I YEAR BOOK pp~00 


The Observatories 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page JZ 


Waiting for Magellan 

3 or all those involved with the Magellan tele- 
scopes — project staff, instrument builders, and 
expectant users — the past year has been the last 
step before the realization of a long-held dream. 
For the project, the year began with the Magellan 

I mount nearing completion and awaiting the 
arrival of optics. It ended with the installation of 
the primary mirror and first light near at hand. By 
July 2000 the telescope was performing well 
enough for the start of regular scientific use to be 
scheduled in early 2001. Meanwhile, the Magellan 

II enclosure, after aggravating delays at the manu- 
facturer, was almost finished, and the mount was 
being prepared for shipment to Chile. Polishing 
the Magellan II primary was proceeding well at 
the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab, with com- 
pletion anticipated for the end of 2000. 

The suite of instruments for Magellan I continued 
to progress as well. Fabrication of the mechanical 
subassemblies for the faint-object camera and 
spectrograph IMACS (the Inamori Magellan 
Areal Camera and Spectrograph) began in earnest 
and the optics for the long camera were completed 
except for coating. The high-resolution spectro- 
graph MIKE (the Magellan Inamori Kyocera 
Echelle) progressed similarly in its mechanical and 
optical fabrication. However, neither instrument 
will be ready when scientific operations begin in 
early 2001; thus arrangements have been made for 
several interim instruments. These include the 
B&C spectrograph from the du Pont telescope, 
and LDSS-2, an imaging spectrograph formerly at 

Fig. I. This is an image of the IMACS (Inamori Magellan Areal 
Camera and Spectrograph) f/4 "long camera," which includes 
the camera shutter, filter-changing mechanism, and CCD 
detector system. For clarity, the barrel, which holds all the 
parts together, is not shown. (Photo courtesy Bruce Bigelow 
and the IMACS project.) 

the William Herschel telescope, which was made 
available through an agreement with the 
University of Durham. The third initial facility 
instrument, MAGIC (the Magellan Instant 
Camera, a CCD imager being constructed at 
MIT), was close to schedule and should be 
available by early 2001. 

For the Carnegie observers, the past year has been 
one of anticipation, of waiting — with more or less 
patience — for that day when their long-formed 
observing plans could at last be accomplished. It 
has been a long, long road, which began in the 

Left: This image shows a 700 kiloparsec-wide simulated slice of the universe at redshift 3. 1 . It was produced from the output of a cosmo- 
logical hydro-simulation (courtesy M. Steinmetz, U. of Arizona). The different colors depict regions of different neutral hydrogen density. 
The green objects are dense clumps of gas known as Lyman-limit systems; the red centers in some of them represent young galaxies, 
so-called Damped Lyman alpha systems. These high-density objects were formed by collapse from a filamentary matrix of highly ionized 
gas (blue) in which they still reside. Generally, these various "phases" of matter are too faint to be observed in their own light. However, 
they can be easily studied in the absorption spectra of a background light source, such as a quasar. 


page $2 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

early 1980s with Steve Shectman's scheme for an 
innovative, inexpensive large telescope. Other 
astronomers elsewhere accomplished that scheme. 
The telescope that Carnegie eventually built 
evolved into a more conventional and more power- 
ful instrument — indeed into a pair of them. 

Many people and institutions have made essential 
contributions to Magellan. Without the support of 
Carnegie administrators, trustees, and benefactors, 
Cerro Manqui would still be a bare mountaintop. 
Without the partnership of the University of 
Arizona, the Magellan telescopes would be very 
different instruments, and the worse for it. 
Without Harvard, MIT, and the University of 
Michigan, there would only be one, rather than 
two, Magellans. The Observatories' scientific and 
technical staff have worked single-mindedly for 
years to make Magellan a success. The project has 
been blessed by a series of brilliant project man- 
agers: Al Hiltner, Peter de Jonge, and Matt Johns, 
who have built telescopes of exceptional quality 
with remarkably few resources. However, 
Magellan owes most to two people: Steve 

Fig. 2. The Walter Baade telescope mirror was coated with 
aluminum for the first time on August 7, 2000. It has an 
average reflectivity of 90% — an excellent achievement. The 
lifting fixture is shown above and reflecting in the mirror. 

Shectman, who as Magellan Project Scientist has 
labored longer and harder than anyone to make 
the dream of a large Carnegie telescope a reality, 
and Maxine Singer, without whose steadfast 
support Magellan would still only be a dream. . 
Present and future generations of Carnegie 
astronomers owe both a great debt of gratitude. 

The long wait for the completion of Magellan has 
not been an idle time for Carnegie astronomers. 
The staff and fellows have made extraordinarily 
good use of the smaller telescopes available to 
them. Indeed, statistics of scientific citations show 
that both the Swope and du Pont telescopes have 
been among the most productive telescopes of 
their size. Work of great importance on the struc- 
ture of the universe, the evolution of the chemical 
elements, and many other problems is being done 
with these telescopes. Carnegie astronomers have 
also made very effective use of the Hubble Space 
Telescope in subjects including the Hubble con- 
stant, the evolution of galaxies, and supermassive 
black holes, among others. 

Nevertheless, important and productive as this 
work has been, some of it has represented the next 
best thing — not what the staff most wanted to 
accomplish, but what could be accomplished with 
less than the largest telescopes. Astronomers are 
always starved for light. Some very important 
problems can be attacked with small telescopes — 
witness the above — but many of the most 
compelling problems require the largest possible 
collecting area. At last, the wait for that capability 
is almost over. Although Magellan's most 
important work is yet to be conceived, several 
compelling problems will occupy much of the 
time during the first years, including the history 
of the chemical elements, the growth of structure 
in the universe, and the evolution of galaxies. 

The History of the Chemical Elements 

All but the few lightest of the chemical elements 
are made in stars, so the history of the elements is 
the history of star formation. Stars of a given age 
sample the composition of the galactic gas at the 
time they were born, and therefore tell us about 
the history of element production up until that 

time. Carnegie astronomers, including George 
Preston, Andy McWilliam, Steve Shectman, and 
Ian Thompson, have been particularly interested 
in the oldest stars, whose compositions reflect the 
first stages of star formation and element produc- 
tion. For the past several years, they have been 
using the du Pont telescope to assemble a sample 
of galactic stars that are least enriched in the heavy 
elements. The first generation of stars — which 
must have existed but are yet to be discovered — 
was composed of only the light elements, predom- 
inantly hydrogen and helium. The least enriched 
of the stars in the du Pont sample are presumably 
members of the second generation, formed from 
the material ejected from dying stars of the first 
generation. Their detailed compositions can tell 
us much about the nature of element production 
in stars, and about the birth of the galaxy. 

These stars are not particularly faint, but analysis 
of their chemical composition requires data of very 
high precision and high resolution. That requires 
much light, more than can be provided by small 
telescopes. Thus their study must await the com- 
pletion of MIKE. It will be even more challenging 
to extend such studies to other nearby galaxies, 
whose enrichment histories are virtually unknown. 
The distant, much fainter stars in these galaxies 
will tax even the light-gathering capacity of 
Magellan. However, the University of Michigan 
is completing a fiber-optic feed for MIKE, which 
will permit simultaneous observations of up to 
100 stars within the 30-arc-minute field of the 
Magellan Nasmyth focus. Simultaneous observa- 
tions of many stars allow one the luxury of much 
longer exposure times, extending the reach of 
Magellan and MIKE to much fainter objects. 

The Formation of Structure in the 

The growth of structure in the universe is a 
central theme of contemporary astronomy and 
astrophysics. At very early times the contents of 
the universe were entirely gas, and the growth of 
inhomogeneities in the gas represents the earliest 
phase of the evolution that eventually led to the 
formation of stars and galaxies. This gas can only 
be detected by the absorption that it produces in 





Fig. 3. Observations of the very distant universe, seen here in 
this image of the Hubble Deep Field, provide a window onto 
the epoch of galaxy formation. Because the light from galaxies 
born long ago is just now reaching Earth, astronomers can 
glimpse into the very early universe. 


the light of distant quasars. The observational 
task is very similar to that involved in studying 
the chemical composition of stars: very detailed 
spectroscopy of faint starlike objects using the 
instrumental combination of Magellan and 
MIKE. Carnegie astronomers, including Ray 
Weymann, Michael Rauch, and Jason Prochaska, 
will be using MIKE to trace the growth of struc- 
ture in the primordial gas, and to follow the 
buildup of the abundance of heavy elements 
after the first stars form. 

JL fjts JL-.J U 


The next stage in cosmic evolution — the assembly 
of galaxies out of the clumps of gas and stars that 
formed in the early universe — is the single greatest 
preoccupation of astronomy today. It is generally 
accepted that galaxies were built by a hierarchical 
process in which small lumps merged into ever 
larger lumps; a process that is only nearing com- 
pletion now. Demonstrating the correctness of this 
picture, and elucidating the details — how lumps 
merge and how the initially gaseous lumps evolve 
into predominantly stellar systems — is a daunting 
task. Much of the action occurred at early epochs; 
the initial fragments are intrinsically faint and very 
distant. Critical details are beyond the reach of 
even Magellan-class telescopes, and await the next 
generation of giant telescopes now being dreamt 


page 54 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

Fig. 4. The domes for Magellan I (foreground) and Magellan II 
(background, under construction) stand atop Cerro Manqui 
at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile in April 2000. 

of. However, IMACS will bring much of the 
process within the reach of Magellan. Alan 
Dressier, Eric Persson, Pat McCarthy, Francois 
Schweizer, and a host of Observatories postdocs 
will be following various pieces of this history, 
from the formation of the first protogalactic sys- 
tems to the most recent evolutionary changes. 

justice, that Baade was second only to Edwin 
Hubble in his importance to 20 th century 
astronomy. Baade published sparingly during his 
relatively brief career, but the influence of his work 
and ideas permeates the science today. Much of our 
current understanding about cosmic evolution is 
grounded in Baade's work on stellar populations. 
He made fundamental contributions to topics as 
diverse as the cosmic distance scale, asteroids, and 
radio galaxies. In the 1930s, decades in advance of 
the discovery of pulsars, he and Fritz Zwicky cor- 
rectly inferred that supernovae were caused by the 
collapse of evolved stars to form neutron stars, and 
Baade continued to lead the study of supernovae 
and supernova remnants until the end of his life. 
The Observatories have had many great 
astronomers on their staff; Baade must be placed 
near the top of that very distinguished list. 

— Augustus Oetnler, Jr., 
Crawford H. Greenewalt Director 

The Magellan telescopes have now acquired more 
suitable names than numbers I and II. The second 
Magellan telescope will be named in honor of Mr. 
Landon Clay, a generous friend of the Harvard 
College Observatory. Mr. Clay's support has been 
essential to Harvard's participation in Magellan, 
without which the second telescope would not 
have been possible. The first Magellan telescope 
will be named in honor of Carnegie astronomer 
Walter Baade. It has been said, with considerable 

:arnegie institu' 

YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page 55 

Fig. 5. Members of the Observatories. First row (from left): Earl Harris, Jennifer Wilson, Dan Kelson, Andy 
McWilliam, Wendy Freedman, Ken Clardy, Pilar Ramirez, Greg Ortiz, Robert Storts. Second row: Judy Rosenau, 
Hsiao-Wen Chen, Linda Schweizer, Swara Ravindranath, Augustus Oemler, Bronagh Glaser, Estuardo Vasquez, 
Barry Madore, Brian Sutin, Christoph Birk, Cristina Popescu, Tyson Hare, Darrell Gilliam, Steve Shectman, 
Alan Bagish. Third row: Rebecca Bernstein, Francois Schweizer, Sharon Kelly, Jeanette Stone, Karen Gross, Joe Vigil, 
Matt Johns, Greg Burley, Richard Surnock, Doug Burns. Fourth row: Bruce Bigelow, Paul Collison, Michael Rauch, 
Paul Martini, Jason Prochaska, Steve Hedberg, Ian Thompson, Steve Wilson, Scott Chapman, John Grula, Scott Rubel, 
Joe Asa, Vince Kowal. 


;e;^ year book pp—oo 


July I, 1 999 -June 30, 2000 

Research Staff Members 

Alan Dressier 

Wendy Freedman 

Patrick McCarthy 

Andrew McWilliam 

John Mulchaey 1 

Augustus Oemler, Jr., Director 

Eric Persson 

George Preston, Director Emeritus 2 

Michael Raucfv 

Francois Schweizer'' 

Leonard Searle, Director Emeritus 

Stephen Shectman 

Ian Thompson 

Ray Weymann, Director Emeritus^ 

Staff Associate 

Luis Ho 

Senior Research Associate 

Barry Mad ore 1 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Martin Beckett, Magellan Instrumentation Fellow 6 

Rebecca Bernstein, Hubble Fellow 

Scott Chapman, Magellan Instrumentation Fellow 

Hsiao Wen Chen, Research Associate 7 

Yashuro Hashimoto, Research Associate 8 

Jennifer Johnson, Carnegie Fellow 7 

Ron Marzke, Hubble Fellow 

Jason Prochaska, Starr Fellow 

Lisa Storrie-Lombardi, Research Associate" 1 

Scott Trager, Hubble Fellow 

Ben Weiner, McClintock Fellow 

Lin Yan, Research Associate 

Las Campanas Research Staff 

William Kunkel, Resident Scientist 

Mark Phillips, Associate Director, Las Campanas 

Miguel Roth, Director, Las Campanas Observatory 

Las Campanas Fellow 

Gaspar Galaz, Andes/Carnegie Fellow 

Support Scientists 

Bruce Bigelow, Instrument Scientist 
Greg Burley, Instrument Scientist 
David Murphy, Instrument Scientist 
Brian Sutin, Optical Scientist 

Supporting Staff, Pasadena 

Joseph Asa, Magellan Electronics Technician 

Alan Bagish, Las Campanas Observatory Engineer 

Christoph Birk, Data Acquisition Program 

Tim Bond, Mechanical Engineer 

Greg Bredthauer, Magellan Project Support Engineer 9 

Douglas Burns, Business A/lonoger 10 

David Carr, Magellan Project Instrument Engineer 

Ken Clardy, Programmer 

Paul Collison, Computer Systems Manager 

Mannus de Jonge, Magellan Project Construction 

Manager' ' 
Mark Donikian, Technical Assistant' 1 
Darrell Gilliam, Electronics Technician 
John Grula, Head Librarian, Information 

Services/Publications Manager 
Bronagh Glaser, Administrative Assistant 
Karen Gross, Assistant to the Director 
Tyson Hare, MACS Mechanical Engineer 7 
Earl Harris, Assistant, Building and Grounds 
Steve Hedberg, Accountant 
Charles Hull, Magellan Project Mechanical Engineer 
Matt Johns, Associate Director of the Observatories' ' 
Sharon Kelly, Buyer 

Vincent Kowal, Instrument Maker'* 

Aurora Mejia, Housekeeper 

Robert Mejia, Housekeeper 

Georgina Nichols, Controller* 

Greg Ortiz, Assistant, Building and Grounds 

Stephen Padilla, Photographer 

Emily Petty, Magellan Project Administrative 

Assistant 9 
Pilar Ramirez, Machine Shop Foreperson/lnstrument 

Judy Rosenau, Magellan Project Administrative 

Scott Rubel, Assistant, Building and Grounds 
Linda Schweizer, Assistant Director, External 

Affairs' 5 
jeanette Stone, Purchasing Manager 
Robert Storts, Instrument Maker 
Richard Surnock, Instrument Maker 
Estuardo Vasquez, Instrument Maker 
Joe Vigil, Buyer 16 
Jennifer Wilson, Data Analyst' 7 
Steven K. Wilson, Facilities Manager 

Supporting Staff, Las Campanas 

Carolina Alcayaga, Purchasing Manager 

Ricardo Alcayaga, Mechanic 

Hernan Angel, Driver/ Purchaser 

Yerko Aviles, Administrative Assistant 

Hector Balbonti'n, Chef 

Carlos Callejas, Electrician 

Pedro Callejas, Electrician 

Pedro Carrizo, Plumber 

Jilberto Carvajal Rojas, El Pino Guard 

Emilio Cerda, Magellan Electronics Technician 

Oscar Cerda, Janitor 

Angel Cortes, Accountant 

Jose Cortes, Janitor 

Jorge Cuadra, Mechanic Assistant 

Oscar Duhalde, Mechanical Technician 

Julio Egana, Painter 

Juan Espoz, Mechanic 

Juan Godoy, Chef 

Jaime Gomez, Accounting Assistant 

Danilo Gonzalez, El Pino Guard 

Javier Gutierrez, Mechanical Technician Assistant 

Luis Gutierrez, Mechanic' 8 

Juan Jeraldo, Chef 

Leonel Lillo, Carpenter 

Juan Lopez, Magellan Project Construction 

Miguel Mendez, Welder 
Mario Mondaca, El Pino Guard (Part-Time) 
Cesar Muena, Night Assistant 
Pascual Munoz, Chef 
Silvia Munoz, Business Manager 
Mauricio Navarrete, Magellan Instrument Specialist' 
Herman Olivares, Night Assistant 
Fernando Peralta, Night Assistant 
Frank Perez, Magellan Project Supervisor 
Patricio Pinto, Electronics Technician 
Roberto Ramos, Gardener 
Demesio Riquelme, Janitor 
Andres Rivera, Electronics Technician 
Hugo Rivera, Night Assistant 
Carlos Rojas, Janitor 
Honorio Rojas, Water Pump Operator 
Skip Schaller, Magellan Software Engineer' 9 
Miguel Soto Villagran, Magellan Software Engineer 
Gabriel Tolmo, El Pino Guard 
Hector Torres, Magellan Janitor 
Manuel Traslaviha, Heavy Equipment Operator 
David Trigo, Mountain Superintendent 
Geraldo Valladares, Magellan Telescope Operator 
Patricia Villar, Administrative Assistant 

Visiting Investigators 

Roberto Abraham, Cambridge University 
Franklin Alvarado, Isaac Newton Institute 

Gloria Andreuzzi, Rome Observatory 

Rodolfo Barba, University of Chile 

Felipe Barrientos, Catholic University of Chile 

Aaron Barth, Harvard University 

Peter Barthel, Space Research Organization of 

the Netherlands 
Leo Bronfman, University of Chile 
Scott Buries, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Eleazar Rodrigo Carrasco, University of Sao Paulo 
Alejandro Clocchiatti, Catholic University of Chile 
Alessandra Contussi, University of Chile 
Mike Corbin, Steward Observatory 
Jeffrey Crane, University of Virginia 
Julianne Dalcanton, University of Washington 
Fabricio Ferrari, University Rio Grande, Brazil 
Alex Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley 
Andrew Firth, Cambridge University 
Alejandro Garcia, Catholic University of Chile 
Eric Gawiser, University of California, San Diego 
Douglas Geisler, University of Concepcion 
Wolfgang Gieren, University of Concepcion 
Jason Harris, Lick Observatory 
George Hau, Catholic University of Chile 
Michael Hilker, Catholic University of Chile 
Leopoldo Infante, Catholic University of Chile 
Kathryn Johnston, Wesleyan University 
Janusz Kaluzny, Princeton University 
Arunav Kundu, University of Virginia 
Arlo Landolt, Louisiana State University 
Lon Lubin, California Institute of Technology 
Steve Majewski, University of Virginia 
Richard McMahon, Cambridge University 
Ricardo Munoz, University of Concepcion 
John OMeara, University of California, San Diego 
Seong Hong Park, Chungbuck University 
Richard Patterson, University of Virginia 
Ue-Li Pen, Canadian Institution for Theoretical 

Chien Peng, Steward Observatory 
Randy Phelps, California State University, Sacramento 
Bianca Poggianti, Padua Observatory, Italy 
J. Luis Prieto, Catholic University of Chile 
Jason Lee Quinn, University of Notre Dame 
Mike Regan, Space Telescope Science Institute 
Neill Reid, California Institute of Technology 
R. Michael Rich, University of California, Los Angeles 
Monica Rubio, University of Chile 
Chris Sabbey, Cambridge University 
Beatriz Sabogal, Catholic University of Chile 
Juan Seguel, University of Concepcion 
Scott Shade, Catholic University of Chile 
Mike Siegel, University of Virginia 
Tammy Smecker-Hane, University of California, Irvine 
John Stocke, University of Colorado 
Lisa Storrie-Lombardi, California Institute of 

Exequiel Treister, University of Chile 
Matthew Trewhella, California Institute of Technology 
Alan Uomoto, Louisiana State University 
Dennis Zaritsky, University of Arizona 

From July I, 1999 
'Retired August 31, 1999 
: From June 1 , 2000 
" Transferred from DTM September 1 . 1 999 

5 Retired December 31. 1 999 

6 To May 3 1 , 2000 

I From September 1 , 1 999 
■ To November 30, 1999 
'To July 31, 1999 

10 From February 1 , 2000 

II To March 31, 2000 

" From July 26, 1 999 to February 1 , 2000 

"From July I, 2000 

" From October 25, 1999 

'' From January 1 , 2000 

" From September 15, 1999 

" From August 6, 1999 

'"From November I, 1999 

" From November 9, 1 999 

Observatories' Bibliography 

:arnegie institution 

YEAR BOOK pp—QO page 57 

Barth, A. J., H. D. Tran, M. S. Brotherton, A. V. 
Filippenko, L C. Ho, W. van Breugel, R, 
Antonucci, and R. W. Goodrich, Polarized nar- 
row-line emission from the nucleus of NGC 4258, 
Astron.J. 118, 1609, 1999. 

Baum, S. A., and P.J. McCarthy, Emission-line 
properties of 3CR radio galaxies. III. Origins and 
implications of the velocity fields, Astron.J. I I 9, 
2634, 2000. 

Blakeslee, J. P., M. Davis, j. L Tonry, A. Dressier, 
and E. A. Ajhar, A first comparison of the surface 
brightness fluctuation survey distances with the 
galaxy density field: implications for H and 
Omega, Astrophys.J. (Lett) 527, L73, 1999. 

Bohigas.J., M, Tapia, M, Teresa Ruiz, and M. Roth, 
Possible detection of an old bipolar shell associ- 
ated with Eta Carina, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 

Buson, L. M„ F. Bertola, M. Cappelan, C Chiosi, A. 
Dressier, and A. Oemler, Jr., Ultraviolet imaging of 
the galaxy cluster CL 0939+47 1 3 (Abell 85 I ) at 
z=0.4 1 I , Astrophys. J. 531, 684, 2000. 

Clocchiatti, A., M. M. Phillips, et al., The luminous 
type Ic supernova 1 992ar at z=0. 1 45, Astrophys. J. 

Dressier, A., Science opportunities with the 
NGST, in NGST Science and Technology Exposition, 
ASP Conf. Series 207, E. Smith and K. Long, eds., 
p. 6, 2000. 

Dubner, G., E. Giacani, E. Reynoso, W. M. Goss, 
M. Roth, and A. Green, Interaction of the super- 
nova remnant G 1 8.8+0.3 with the surrounding 
medium, Astron.J. 1 18, 930, 1999. 

Femstem, C, F. D. Macchetto, A. R. Martel, W. B. 
Sparks, and P. J. McCarthy, The extended narrow- 
line region of 3C 299, Astrophys.J. 526, 623, 1999. 

Ferrarese, L, H. C Ford, J. Huchra, R. L. Kenmcutt, 
Jr., J. R Mould, S. Sakai, W. L Freedman, P. B. 
Stetson, B. F. Madore, B. K. Gibson, J. A. Graham, 
S. M. Hughes, G D. Illmgworth, D. D. Kelson, L 
Macri, K. Sebo, and N. A. Silbermann, A database 
of Cepheid distance moduli and tip of the Red 
Giant branch, globular cluster luminosity function, 
planetary nebula luminosity function, and surface 
brightness fluctuation data useful for distance 
determinations, Astrophys.J. Suppl. 128, 43 1 , 2000. 

Ferrarese, L, J. R Mould, R. L. Kenmcutt, Jr., J. 
Huchra, H. C Ford, W. L. Freedman, P. B. Stetson, 
B. F. Madore, et al„ The HST Key Project on the 
extragalactic distance scale. XXVI. The calibration 
of population II secondary distance indicators and 
the value of the Hubble constant, Astrophys.J. 
529, 745, 2000. 

Ferruit, P., A. S. Wilson, and J. Mulchaey, Hubble 
Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging of a sample of 
early-type Seyfert galaxies, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 1 28, 

Ferruit, P., A. S. Wilson, M. Whittle, C. Simpson, J. 
S. Mulchaey, and G. J. Ferland, Hubble Space 
Telescope/faint object spectrograph spectroscopy 
of spatially resolved narrow-line regions in the 
Seyfert 2 galaxies NGC 2 1 1 and NGC 5929, 
Astrophys.J. 523, 147, 1999. 

Freedman, W. L, Determination of cosmological 
parameters, Physica Scripta T85, 37, 2000. 

Freedman, W. L, The Hubble constant and the 
expansion age of the universe, in David Schramm's 
Universe [reprinted from Physics Reports 333-334, 
nos. 1-6], G. Brown, M. Kamionkowski, and M. S. 
Turner, eds., p. I 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000. 

Freedman, W. L., and L.-L Feng, Determination of 
the Hubble constant, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sa. USA 96, 
11,063, 1999. 

Gebhardt, K, D. Richstone, J. Kormendy, T R. 
Lauer, E. A. Ajhar, R. Bender, A. Dressier, et al„ 
Axisymmetric, three-integral models of galaxies: a 
massive black hole in NGC 3379, Astron.J. 1 1 9, 
I 1 57, 2000. 

Gibson, B. K„ P. B. Stetson, W. L Freedman, B. F. 
Madore, et al., The HST Key Project on the extra- 
galactic distance scale. XXV. A recalibration of 
Cepheid distances to type la supernovae and the 
value of the Hubble constant, Astrophys.J. 529, 
723, 2000. 

Harrison, F. A., J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R San, S. R. 
Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. 
P. Schmidt, M. H. Wiennga, R M. Mark, R 
Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. 
Schaeffer, R G. McMahon, R O. Marzke, et al., 
Optical and radio observations of the afterglow 
from GRB 9905 1 0: evidence for a jet, Astrophys. J. 
(Lett.) 523, LI2I, 1999. 

Hashimoto, Y„ and A. Oemler, Jr., The effect of 
environment on galaxy interactions, Astrophys J. 
530, 652, 2000. 

Ho, L C, A. Ptak, Y. Terashima. H. Kunieda, P. J. 
Serlemitsos, T. Yaqoob, and A. P. Koratkar, X-ray 
properties of the weak Seyfert I nucleus in NGC 
4639, Astrophys. J. 525, 168, 1999. 

Ho, L C, S. D. Van Dyk, G G Pooley, R A. 
Sramek, and K W. Weiler, Discovery of radio 
outbursts in the active nucleus of M8 1 , Astron. J. 
1 18,843, 1999. 

Johnson, J. A., M. Bolte, P. B. Stetson, J. E. Hesser, 
and R. S. Somerville, Hubble Space Telescope 
observations of the oldest star clusters in the 
Large Magellanic Cloud, Astrophys.J. 527, 199, 1999. 

Kaluzny, J„ A. Olech, I. Thompson, W. Pych, W. 
Krzeminski, and A. Schwarzenberg-Czemy, RR 
Lyrae variables in the globular cluster M5, Astron. 
& Astrophys. Suppl. 1 43, 2 1 5, 2000. 

Kelson, D. D„ G. D. Illmgworth, j. L. Tonry, W. L 
Freedman, R. C Kennicutt, Jr., J. R Mould, J. A. 
Graham, J. P. Huchra, L M. Macri, B. F. Madore, L. 
Ferrarese, B. K. Gibson, S. Sakai, P. B. Stetson, E. A. 
Ajhar, j. P. Blakeslee, A. Dressier, et al., The HST 
Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale. 
XXVII. A derivation of the Hubble constant using 
the fundamental plane and D n -sigma relations 
in Leo I, Virgo, and Fornax, Astrophys.J. 529, 
768, 2000. 

Kerber, F„ E. Furlan, M. Roth, G. Galaz, J. C 
Chaname, and Students of the Second Andes- 
Carnegie Astronomy Summer School, 
Investigating new planetary nebulae in the 
Southern Hemisphere, Pub. Astron. Soc Pacific 

Kraemer, S. B„ L. C. Ho, D. M. Crenshaw, J. C 
Shields, and A. V Filippenko, Physical conditions in 
the emission-line gas in the extremely low-lumi- 
nosity Seyfert nucleus of NGC 4395, Astrophys.J. 
520,564, 1999. 

Kulkarni, V. P., J. M. Hill, G. Schneider, R J. 
Weymann, L J. Storrie-Lombardi, M. J. Rieke, and 
R. I. Thompson, NICMOS imaging of the damped 
Ly-alpha absorber at z= 1 .89 toward LBQS 
1 2 1 0+ 1 73 I : constraints on size and star forma- 
tion rate, Astrophys.J. 536, 36, 2000. 

Kurk, J. D„ H. J. A. Rottgenng, |_ Pentericci, G. K. 
Miley, W. van Breugel, C L Carilli, H. Ford, T 
Heckman, P. McCarthy, and A. Moorword, A 
search for clusters at high redshift. I. Candidate Ly 
Alpha emitters near I I 38-262 at z=2.2, Astron. & 
Astrophys. 358, LI, 2000. 

Lahav, O, B. X. Santiago, A. M. Webster, M. A. 
Strauss, M. Davis, A. Dressier, and J. P. Huchra, 
The supergalactic plane revisited with the Optical 
Redshift Survey, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 312, 
I 66, 2000. 

Lehnert, M. D„ G. K. Miley, W. B. Sparks, S. A. 
Baum, J. Biretta, D. Golombek, S. de Koff, F. D. 
Macchetto, and P. j. McCarthy, Hubble Space 
Telescope snapshot survey of 3CR quasars: the 
data, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 1 23, 351, 1999. 

Macri, L M„ J. P. Huchra, P. B. Stetson, N. A. 
Silbermann, R C Kennicutt, Jr., J. R Mould, W. L 
Freedman, B. F. Madore, et al., The extragalactic 
distance scale key project. XVIII. The discovery of 
Cepheids and a new distance to NGC 4535 using 
the Hubble Space Telescope, Astrophys.J. 521 , 
155, 1999. 

Majewski, S. R, M. H. Siegel, W. E. Kunkel, I. N. 
Reid, K V Johnston, I. B. Thompson, A. U. 
Landolt, and C Palma, Starcounts redivivus. III. A 
possible detection of the Sagittarius dwarf spher- 
oidal galaxy at b=-40°, Astron.J. 118, 1709, 1999. 

Mailer, A. H„ J. X. Prochaska, R. Somerville, and J. 
R. Pnmack, Optical counterparts to damped 
Lyman alpha systems, in Clustering at High Redshift, 
ASP Conf. Series 200, A. Mazure, O. Le Fevre, 
and V. Le Brun, eds., p. 430, 2000. 

Maoz, E., J. A. Newman, L. Ferrarese, P. B. Stetson, 
S. E. Zepf, M. Davis, W. L Freedman, and B. F. 
Madore, A distance to the galaxy NGC 4258 
from observations of Cepheid variable stars, 
Nature 401, 351, 1999. 

Marquez, I., F. Durret, R M. Gonzalez Delgado, I. 
Marrero, J. Masegosa, J. Maza, M. Moles, E. Perez, 
and M. Roth, Near-infrared photometry of iso- 
lated spirals with and without an AGN. I. The 
data, Astron. & Astrophys. Suppl. 140, I, 1999. 

McCarthy, P. J„ L Yan, W. Freudling, H. I. Teplitz, 
E. M. Malumuth, R. Weymann, et al., Emission-line 
galaxies from the NICMOS/Hubble Space 
Telescope GRISM parallel survey, Astrophys.J. 520, 
548, 1999. 

McWilliam, A., and R. M. Rich, Abundance ratios 
in galactic bulge stars, in Chemical Evolution from 
Zero to High Redshift, J. R. Walsh and M. R Rosa, 
eds., p.73, Springer, New York, 1999. 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

McWilliam, A., and L Searle, Abundance ratios in 
extremely metal-poor stars, Astrophys. & Space So. 
265, 133, 1999. 

Millard, J., D. Branch, E. Baron, K. Hatano, A. 
Fisher, A. V. Filippenko, R. P. Kirshner, P. M. 
Challis, C. Fransson, N. Panagia, M. M. Phillips, G. 
Sonneborn, N. B. Suntzeff, R. V. Wagoner, and J. 
C. Wheeler, Direct analysis of spectra of the 
type Ic supernova SN 19941, Astrophys. j. 527, 
746, 1999. 

Mochejska, B. J., J. Kaluzny, and I. B. Thompson, 
Variable stars in the field of the globular cluster 
E3, Acta Astronomica 50, 1 05, 2000. 

Moran, E. C, A. V. Filippenko, L C. Ho, J. C. 
Shields, T. Belloni, A. Comastn, S. L Snowden, 
and R. A. Sramek, The nuclear spectral energy dis- 
tribution of NGC 4395, the least luminous type I 
Seyfert galaxy, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. I I I , 80 1 , 1 999. 

Morgan, N. D., G. Burley, E. Costa, J. Maza, S. E. 
Persson, M. T Ruiz, P. L. Schechter, I. Thompson, 
and J. N. Winn, CTQ 839: candidate for the small- 
est projected separation binary quasar, Astron. J. 
119, 1083,2000. 

Morgan, N. D„ A. Dressier, J. Maza, P. L 
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tational lens, Astron. J. 118, 1444, 1999. 

Mould, J. R, J. P. Huchra, W. L Freedman, R C. 
Kennicutt, Jr., L Ferrarese, H. C Ford, B. K. 
Gibson, J. A. Graham, S. M. G. Hughes, G. D. 
Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, L M. Macn, B. F. 
Madore, S. Sakai, K. M. Sebo, N. A. Silbermann, 
and P. B. Stetson, The Hubble Space Telescope 
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XXVIII. Combining the constraints on the Hubble 
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Mould, J. R, S. M. G. Hughes, P. B. Stetson, B. K. 
Gibson, J. P. Huchra, W. L Freedman, R. C 
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A. Graham, M. Han, J. G. Hoessel, G D. 
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Mulchaey, J. S., X-ray observations of poor groups, 
in Small Galaxy Groups, IAU Coll. I 74, ASP Conf. 
Series 209, M. J. Valtonen and C Flynn, eds, p. 

Newman, J. A., S. E. Zepf M. Davis, W. L 
Freedman, B. F. Madore, P. B. Stetson, N. 
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to NGC 4603 in Centaurus, Astrophys.]. 523, 
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Oemler, A., jr., Galaxy evolution in clusters: the 
MORPHS study, in The Hy-Redshift Universe: 
Galaxy Formation and Evolution at High Redshift, 
ASP Conf. Series 1 93, A. j. Bunker and W. J. M. 
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Olech, A. Jr., P. R Wozniak, C Alard, J. Kaluzny, 
and I. B. Thompson, Variable stars in the globular 
cluster M5: application of the image subtraction 
method, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 3 1 0, 759, 

Persi, P., M. Tapia, and M. Roth, The NGC 6334 
IV massive star formation site: a cluster in the 
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Phillips, M. M., P. Lira, N. B Suntzeff, R A. 
Schommer, M. Hamuy, and J. Maza, The redden- 
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for Type la supernovae, Astron. ]. 118, 1 766, 1 999. 

Pogge, R W„ D. Maoz, L C Ho, and M. 
Eracleous, The narrow-line regions of LINERs as 
resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope, 
Astrophys.J. 532, 323, 2000. 

Preston, G W., What are extremely metal-poor 
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112, 141,2000. 

Preston, G W., and A. U. Landolt, Pulsating blue 
metal-poor stars, Astron. J. 1/8,3006, 1999. 

Prochaska, J. X., The physical nature of the 
damped Ly-alpha systems, in Clustering at High 
Redshift, ASP Conf. Series 200, A. Mazure, O. 
Le Fevre, and V. Le Brun, eds., p. 276, 2000. 

Prochaska, j. X., and A. M. Wolfe, Metallicity evo- 
lution in the early universe, Astrophys.]. (Lett.) 533, 
L5, 2000. 

Prosser, C, R. C. Kennicutt, Jr., F. Bresolin, A. Saha, 
S. Sakai, W. L Freedman, J. R. Mould, L Ferrarese, 
H. C. Ford, B. K. Gibson, J. A. Graham, J. G. 
Hoessell, J. P. Huchra, S. M. Hughes, G. D. 
Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, L Macn, B. F. Madore, et 
al., The HST Key Project on the extragalactic dis- 
tance scale. XXII. The discovery of Cepheids in 
NGC I 326A, Astrophys.]. 525, 80, 1999. 

Quataert, E., T Di Matteo, R. Narayan, and L C. 
Ho, Possible evidence for truncated thin disks in 
the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei of M8I 
and NGC 4579, Astrophys.]. (Lett.) 525, L89, 1999. 

Rich, R M„ and A. McWilliam, Abundances of 
stars in the galactic bulge obtained using the Keck 
Telescope, Proc. SPIE 4005, 1 50, 2000. 

Riess, A. G„ A. V. Filippenko, M. C Liu. P. Challis, 
A. Clocchiatti, A. Diercks, P. M. Garnavich, C. J. 
Hogan, S. Jha, R P. Kirshner, B. Leibundgut, M. M. 
Phillips, et al., Tests of the accelerating universe 
with near-infrared observations of a high-redshift 
type la supernova, Astrophys. ]. 536, 62, 2000. 

Saha, A„ A. Sandage, A., G. A. Tammann, L. 
Labhardt, F. D. Macchetto, and N. Panagia, 
Cepheid calibration of the peak brightness of type 
la supernovae. IX. SN I989B in NGC 3627, 
Astrophys. J. 522,802, 1999. 

Sakai, S., L Ferrarese, R. C Kennicutt, Jr., j. A. 
Graham, N. A. Silberman, J. R Mould, W. L 
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Han, P. Harding, J. G. Hoessel, J. P. Huchra, S. M. 
Hughes, G. D. Illingworth, D. Kelson, L Macn, B. F. 
Madore, et al., The Hubble Space Telescope 
extragalactic distance scale Key Project. XXIII. The 
discovery of Cepheids in NGC 33 19, Astrophys.]. 
523,540, 1999. 

Sakai, S., and B. F. Madore, Detection of the red 
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Sakai, S., J. R. Mould, S. M. G Hughes, J. P. Huchra, 
L. M. Macn, R C Kennicutt, Jr., B. K. Gibson, L 
Ferrarese, W. L Freedman, M. Han, H. C Ford, J. 
A. Graham, G. D. Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, B. F. 
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the Tully-Fisher relations and the value of the 
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Sandage, A., Bias properties of extragalactic dis- 
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Sandage, A„ Bias properties of extragalactic dis- 
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width distributions for galaxy types along the 
Hubble sequence based on distance-limited sam- 
ples from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog, 
Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific I 12, 504, 2000. 

Sandage, A., Episodes in the discovery of varia- 
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Sandage, A., The first 50 years at Palomar 1 949- 
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Sandage, A., Hubble and Humason's evaluation of 
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Sandage, A., with G. A. Tammannand and B. 
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Schaefer, B. E„ A. Oemler, et al., Discovery of 
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(Lett.) 524, L 1 03, 1 999. 

Schweizer, F., Effects of late mergers on stellar 
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Schweizer, F., Young globular clusters, in 
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Observatories' Bibliography 


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Shectman, S. A., The Magellan Project, in 
Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation 
2000: Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, 
Assembly/lntegration/Validation, and Commissioning, 
Proc. SPIE 4004, T. A. Sebring and T. Andersen, 
eds., 2000. . 

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G. Rudnick, A. V. Filippenko, W. L W. Sargent, 
and M. Sarzi, Evidence for a black hole and accre- 
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M. Dickinson, S. G. Djorgovski, R Elston, B. T. 
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Integrated stellar populations of bulges: first 
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M. Carollo, H. C. Ferguson, and R. F. G Wyse, 
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the galactic bar implied by gas kinematics in the 
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luminosity function of young star clusters in 
"The Antennae" galaxies (NGC 4038/4039), 
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page 60 I YEARBOOK^?- 00 






Department of Terrestrial M 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 


Extending Our Senses 

"Not only do we use instruments to give us fineness of detail inac- 

P. W. Bridgman 

Qtate-of-the-art instrumentation is the lifeblood 
of all branches of experimental science. As Nobel 
laureate and high-pressure-physics pioneer Percy 
Bridgman noted, scientific instruments extend our 
natural perceptions and expose new realms of phe- 
nomena. Astronomers resort to ingenious devices 
to sharpen images of the heavens and to recover 
the motions of stars, planets, and galaxies from 
extremely subtle shifts in the spectra of light. 
Geochemists and cosmochemists subject ever 
smaller samples to a barrage of chemical, mechani- 
cal, and physical separation processes to discern 
tiny differences in chemical or isotopic composi- 
tion that can be diagnostic of ancient volcanic 
upheavals and even the birth of our solar system. 
Geophysicists are learning to read from small 
changes in the straining of the Earth's crust the 
nature of slippage at fault zones and the motion of 
magma at depth that heralds a volcanic eruption. 
Theoreticians are experimenting with new meth- 
ods for linking computers to improve steadily the 

ability of numerical calculations to simulate and 
test ideas for the behavior of complex processes. 

The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
(DTM) has, since its inception, placed a high pri- 
ority on the development of scientific instrumen- 
tation and on the pioneering use of new analytical 
capabilities to explore physical phenomena. This 
emphasis has led to a process of continuing 
renewal of our laboratories and our arsenal of field 
equipment. Where the necessary instrumentation 
has been developed in the commercial sector, 
equipment purchases make economic sense, but 
maintaining our research infrastructure at the edge 
of the scientific frontier requires a sustained com- 
mitment of resources to such investments. Where 
there is a need for instrumentation not sold by 
any vendor, or where innovations in design and 

Bridgman, P. W„ The Way Things Are, Viking Press, New York, 1 959. 

Left: This montage illustrates the use of scientific instrumentation in the field and the laboratory by DTM staff. Top left: Mass spectrometry 
laboratory manager Timothy Mock at work on the Plasma 54 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Top right: Seismic field 
technician Peter Burkett (right) with Beat Rinderknecht (ETH, Zurich) installing solar panels for a broadband seismic station on Graciosa, 
Azores, part of a network that will be used to study the upper mantle structure beneath the Azores platform and hotspot. Bottom: 
Ben Pandit, Alan Linde, Eiichiro Araki (Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo), Masanao Shinohara (Earthquake Research Institute, 
University of Tokyo), Kiyoshi Suyehiro (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center), Nelson McWhorter, and Selwyn Sacks on the 
international drilling vessel Resolution prior to installing geophysical instrumentation in a drill hole that penetrates more than I km beneath 
the seafloor east of Tohoku, japan. 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

construction can yield capabilities equivalent to 
a commercial product at a substantial savings, 
departmental personnel in our machine and elec- 
tronic shops and our computer systems group 
constitute a critical resource. 

A few examples of ongoing and completed 
research from the past year illustrate both our 
dependence on advanced instrumentation for 
much of our work and the process of selecting 
the most promising opportunities for renewing 
that instrumentation as an essential step toward 
scientific progress. 

Jupiter-Mass Planets 

Our newest member of the Research Staff, Paul 
Butler, specializes in the discovery and characteri- 
zation of planets orbiting nearby stars. One of the 
world's foremost experts in the measurement of 
the velocity of such stars as they orbit the center of 
mass of their star-planet system, Butler described 
his team's discovery of the first confirmed multi- 
ple-planet system around a normal star in Year 
Book 98/99 (pp. 110-112). Prior to coming to 
DTM, Butler was on the staff of the Anglo- 
Australian Observatory, where he initiated a 
planet search in the southern sky on their 4-m 
telescope. The orbits of four of the most recent 
findings from that search are shown in Fig. 1, 
superimposed for scale on a view of the orbits of 
the inner planets of our solar system. The object 
with the smallest orbital dimension is about one 
Jupiter mass in a three-day orbit around HD 
179949; this planet is a member of a group of 
objects now colloquially termed "hot Jupiters." 
The object labeled "|i Ara," at least two Jupiter 
masses and in an elongated elliptical orbit with a 
semimajor axis greater than that of Mars, typifies 
the most common type of planet found to date. 
The object labeled "e Ret (Reticulum)," at slightly 
more than one Jupiter mass, is the first planet 
found at more than 20% of the Earth-Sun distance 
(0.2 AU, or Astronomical Units) from its star in a 
circular orbit much like the orbit of the Earth. The 
fourth object, in orbit around HD 164427, is not a 
planet but is thought to be either a low-mass star 
or a high- mass brown dwarf. 

The list of extrasolar planets, at 54 as of 15 January 
2001, is lengthening rapidly, but those reported in 
the northern sky to date outpace those from the 
Southern Hemisphere. To correct this imbalance, 
Butler is presently teaming with Observatories 
Staff Member Stephen Shectman to build a 
spectrometer customized for "planet hunting" with 
Carnegie's 6.5-m Magellan telescopes. The instru- 
ment is a cross-dispersed Echelle spectrometer 
that records in a single exposure the entire spec- 
trum of a star at extremely high spectral resolution. 
With this spectrometer, Butler and Shectman plan 
to complete an all-sky survey of late F through K 
dwarf stars out to 50 parsecs and of M dwarfs out 
to 15 parsecs at a precision in radial velocity of 2 
to 3 m/s. Such a precision, comparable to or some- 
what better than the precision currently achieved 
by Butler's team with general-purpose spectrome- 
ters on other large telescopes, is needed to detect 
objects of Jupiter or Saturn mass orbiting their 
parent star beyond 4 AU. One of the high-priority 
goals of Butler and his colleagues is to find planets 
similar in mass and orbit to Jupiter, in a circular 
orbit of 12-year period and 5-AU semimajor axis, 

Fig. I. The orbital characteristics (in red) of four extrasolar 
objects recently discovered by Paul Butler and his collabora- 
tors can be compared at the same scale with the orbits of 
the four inner planets of the solar system (in yellow). 

YEAR BOOK pp~00 

because planetary systems with such objects may 
hold the greatest promise for also containing 
Earth-mass planets at stellar distances near 1 AU. 

The formation of Jupiter-mass planets in our 
solar system and around other stars is one of the 
primary current research interests of theoretician 
Alan Boss. In particular, he is exploring the 
hypothesis that such gas-giant planets form from 
instabilities in the disk surrounding young stellar 
objects. The standard view of the formation of 
Jupiter and Saturn is that both formed by the 
accretion of solid ice and rock to form a "core" of 
several Earth masses, which then accreted nebular 
gas by gravitational attraction. One problem with 
this scenario, however, is that the accretion time 
for the ice-rock core, •according to most models, 
is longer than the lifetime of nebular gas around 
a solar-mass star (a few million years). Under the 
instability mechanism, a nebular disk of gas and 
dust breaks up into clumps, some of which can 
contract and grow into giant gaseous protoplanets 
on a much shorter timescale. Testing this hypoth- 
esis for the formation of Jupiter-mass planets 
requires considerable computing power. To oper- 
ate his three-dimensional hydrodynamic codes, 
Boss utilizes a network of 64-bit, dual Alpha 
processors integrated into the "Carnegie Alpha 
Cluster." The cluster provides both computational 
speed and flexibility, at a cost much less than that 
of a supercomputer. Developed with the assistance 
of Research Scientist Gotthard Saghi-Szabo of the 
Geophysical Laboratory, the cluster presently 
consists of eight dual-node machines and about 
10 older processors, but expansion is envisioned 
as resources allow. An illustrative example of a 
disk instability capable of leading to a Jupiter-mass 
planet is shown in Fig. 2. 

Clues to the Early Solar System 

Isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry, long 
mainstays of the research expertise at DTM, 
require increasingly sophisticated instrumentation. 
In 1997 and 1999, the department acquired two 
multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass 
spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) instruments. These 
devices, which utilize a hot plasma to efficiently 
ionize a sample prior to mass spectrometry, have 

opened new avenues for investigating Earth and 
solar system processes with high-precision isotope 
ratio analysis. One field of inquiry that has bene- 
fited from this capability is the early chronology of 
planets and meteorite parent bodies. An example 
of this advance is new work conducted by Richard 
Carlson and Erik Hauri on the silver isotopic 
composition of meteorites. Palladium has a com- 
paratively short-lived isotope ( 1(l7 Pd) that decays to 
an isotope of silver ( 107 Ag) with a half-life of 6.5 
million years. About 20 years ago workers at the 
California Institute of Technology demonstrated 
with thermal ionization mass spectrometry 
(TIMS) that there is excess 107 Ag in certain iron 
meteorites with high ratios of Pd to Ag. Because 
silver has only two isotopes, however, TIMS 
cannot distinguish instrument-induced from 
natural mass fractionation, with the result that the 
Ag isotopic composition can be determined only 
to a precision of about one part in 1,000, limiting 



/ n 


M 7 ' 

Fig. 2. Instability in a nebular disk as low in mass as 1 0% of a 
solar mass may lead to the formation of Jupiter-mass planets, 
according to computer models of Alan Boss. The inner 
region of one such model, 40 AU in diameter and 374 years 
after the start of nebular evolution, displays dense spiral 
arms (purple) and low-density inter-arm regions (black). The 
feature of highest density, the small light clump in the upper 
center of the figure, is likely to contract toward planetary 
densities and to become a gas-giant protoplanet. 




the applicability of the method to high Pd/Ag 
materials. Carlson and Hauri used a "spike" of Pd 
to correct for instrumental mass fractionation in 
the MC-ICP-MS and, as a result, have improved 
the precision in Ag-isotope determination by an 
order of magnitude and have demonstrated varia- 
tions in isotopic composition that would not be 
resolvable with earlier techniques (Fig. 3). Their 
work opens up the possibility of applying the 
Pd-Ag chronometer to a much wider range of 
meteorites than has heretofore been possible. 

Another example of modern instrumentation that 
enables powerful insights into geochemical and 
cosmochemical processes is the ion microprobe, a 
mass spectrometer that accepts ions ejected from 
the surface of a solid sample by the sputtering 
action of an incident ion beam. The DTM ion 
probe, which has been operating since 1996, can 
measure and image the chemical and isotopic 
composition of solid materials down to spatial 
scales as small as 1 micrometer and detection lim- 

Fig. 3. A correlation of the silver isotope ratio (expressed in 
parts per 1 0,000 difference from a standard) with the Pd/Ag 
ratio for sulfide and metal separates from the Canyon Diablo 
iron meteorite supports the inference by Richard Carlson 
and Erik Hauri that variations in l07 Ag/ l08 Ag were produced by 
the decay of now-extinct l07 Pd. A best-fit line through the 
data obtained with the MC-ICP-MS (solid circles) provides an 
estimate for the ratio of l07 Pd to the stable isotope l08 Pd at 
the time the meteorite formed. The open circle shows the 
much poorer precision of earlier TIMS data. 

its of parts per billion. An important application of 
the ion probe is the detection and isotopic charac- 
terization of presolar grains in meteorites (see Year 
Book 95, pp. 57-64). These grains formed around 
stars at the end of their lifetimes (e.g., supernovae 
and red giant stars). One of several types of grains 
identified to date is silicon carbide (SiC). Analysis 
of SiC grains has revealed a great range of isotopic 
compositions. This information has enabled Conel 
Alexander and Larry Nittler to infer details of the 
nucleosynthesis that occurred in the parent stars of 
the grains as well as the isotopic evolution of stel- 
lar material in this region of the galaxy. A repre- 
sentative data set is shown in Fig. 4. The silicon 
isotopes form an array with a slope different from 
that expected for nucleosynthesis and vigorous 
convective overturn in the parent stars (the line 
labeled "to He-shell"). The slope is similar to that 
predicted, however, by models of galactic evolu- 
tion. By such a model, the grains in the solar neb- 
ula came from many stars of different ages, with 
the youngest stars contributing the grains with the 
highest amounts of the two silicon isotopes shown. 
If this hypothesis is correct, then other elements 
should show isotopic variations consistent with 
galactic evolution. The titanium isotopes depicted 
in Fig. 4 largely bear out this prediction. 

DTM geochemists are also hard at work on the 
next generation of instruments for high-precision 
isotopic microanalysis. Following departmental 
tradition, efforts are under way to design and con- 
struct a large-format mass spectrometer capable 
of providing high ion transmission at high mass 
resolution. One of the enabling acquisitions for 
this ambitious endeavor was a large magnet 
(1-m radius of curvature) obtained at no cost 
from the University of Pennsylvania after the 
decommissioning of their accelerator mass 
spectrometer (a facility often used in the past by 
DTM geochemists to analyze 10 Be in island-arc 
volcanic lavas). Louis Brown, Erik Hauri, and 
their colleagues are now developing a double- 
focusing multicollector mass spectrometer that 
utilizes this magnet. This mass spectrometer will 
be designed to accept sputtered ions from the 
transfer optics of our existing ion probe, effectively 
converting our present probe to two instruments 
with the same ion source. Because most parts for 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

-lOQl i ■ 1 1 1 

-50 50 100 150 200 
6 30 Si (%o) 

46 47 48 49 50 
Ti Isotope 

Fig. 4. The variation of silicon isotopic compositions of 
300 presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite is 
explained by Conel Alexander and Larry Nittler as the result 
of variable compositions of the outer envelopes of the parent 
stars of the grains (left). Isotopic composition is expressed 
as the deviation, in parts per thousand, of the ratio of the 
indicated isotope to 28 Si relative to a standard. The titanium 
isotopic compositions for four grains (identified by color- 
coding in the two plots) and their variation with silicon 
isotopic compositions are broadly consistent with galactic 
evolution of stellar material (right). 

the new mass spectrometer will be fabricated in- 
house, the new large-radius instrument will be 
completed at approximately 10% of the cost of 
purchasing a similar commercial ion probe. The 
improved sensitivity of this instrument will permit 
isotopic measurements at the 1-micrometer scale 
for a wide variety of elements present at only 
trace levels. 

Earth Structure and Strain 

The department's research efforts in seismology 
(see Year Book 96/97, pp. 55-61) depend heavily 
on field instrumentation. Much of our work on 
the detailed seismic structure of the Earth's mantle 
and its relationship to patterns of mantle convec- 
tion and variations in mantle bulk composition has 
relied on data collected by our portable broadband 
seismometers. The department now operates 25 
such portable instruments, a number sufficient to 
operate two or three small experiments in parallel 
or to leverage, with additional instruments from 
other institutions or the national seismometer 
pool, an ambitious large experiment. An example 
of the latter was the Southern Africa Seismic 

Experiment, which involved the deployment of 
55 portable broadband instruments (including 21 
from DTM) across southern Africa from April 
1997 to July 1999. David James and his colleagues 
inverted the relative arrival times of seismic body 
waves from distant earthquakes to recover the 
three-dimensional structure of the upper mantle 
beneath the region (Fig. 5). The seismic velocity 
image shows that high -velocity roots of the most 

depth = 
150 km 

station terms (s) 
-.15 to. 15 

- 1 -0 5 0.5 1 

P-wave velocity anomaly (%) 

20 22 24 26 28 

Longitude East 

30 32 34 36 




P-wave velocity anomaly (%) 

B:(34.25S, 19.25E 

B':(18.50S, 31.50E) 

Fig. 5. The relative arrival times of P-waves from distant 
earthquakes have been inverted by David James and col- 
leagues to determine the three-dimensional structure of 
the upper mantle beneath the ancient continental core of 
southern Africa. Velocity variations in map view at 1 50 km 
depth (top) and in cross section along profile B-B' (bottom) 
are color-scaled; the colors grade to black in regions where 
resolution is poor. The dashed lines in the top figure outline 
geological provinces; surface topography in the cross section 
is exaggerated by a factor of 20. 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

ancient continental crust extend to at least 250-km 
depth, consistent with relatively low temperatures 
and depletion by removal of partial melt. DTM 
geochemists have shown that mantle xenoliths 
torn from these continental roots during volcanic 
eruptions are as ancient as the overlying crust 
(see Year Book 93, pp. 109-117), indicating that 
formation of the earliest continents involved 
stabilization of the mantle root at approximately 
the same time as crustal emplacement. As the 
geophysical and geochemical observations from 
southern Africa continue to be integrated, DTM's 
portable broadband seismometers are not idle. The 
instruments are currently deployed as part of three 
smaller experiments to image the upper mantle 
beneath the Galapagos and Azores hotspots and 
the Mid-Continent Rift of North America. 

A parallel research thrust in seismology is the 
measurement of crustal strain as a tool to under- 
stand the dynamics of major fault zones and the 
motion of magma at depth in volcanic regions. 
Permanent networks of DTM strainmeters in 
California, Japan, and Iceland continue to provide 
data on crustal deformation not obtainable by 
other means. A particularly noteworthy example 
occurred during the past year. In January 1991, the 
network of strainmeters in Iceland recorded signals 
preceding and accompanying the eruption of the 
Hekla volcano. None of the data were recorded 
digitally, however, and considerable analysis by 
Alan Linde and his coworkers was required to 
demonstrate that the signals corresponded to what 
might be expected during a volcanic eruption from 
a subsurface magma chamber (see Year Book 92, 
p. 129). Subsequent to that work, the system was 
upgraded so that strainmeter data are immediately 
telemetered to a computer net. In February 2000, 
increased seismicity and a pattern of strain 
remarkably similar to that during the 1991 erup- 
tion (Fig. 6) permitted colleagues at the Icelandic 
Meteorological Office to issue a prediction of 
volcanic activity 20 minutes in advance of the 
surface eruption. 

Encouraged by the findings in Iceland, DTM 
strainmeters were installed this past year in Long 
Valley, California, and on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 

and there are plans to instrument additional active 
volcanoes. Further installations aimed toward 
understanding the dynamics of plate boundary 
zones are progressing as well. In July and August 
of 1999 two strainmeters of a new design were 
deployed by Selwyn Sacks, Alan Linde, and others 
in deep-sea drill holes about 80 km landward of 
the Japan Trench. Together with the University of 
California at Berkeley and San Diego and the 
United States Geological Survey, DTM is also in 
the process of installing strainmeters co-sited with 
seismometers and Global Positioning Satellite 
receivers at a number of locations along the north- 
ern San Andreas and Hayward faults in the San 
Francisco Bay area. This network will serve as a 
pilot experiment for the much more ambitious 
Plate Boundary Observatory, a large network of 
the same types of instruments spanning much of 
western North America, now in the planning stage 
at the National Science Foundation. 

These examples serve well to underscore the 
essential role of modern scientific instruments 
for almost all of the research carried out in the 
department as well as the remarkable diversity of 
processes that we are permitted to witness by their 
creative use. By means of instrumentation we can 
now discern the motions of planets around other 
stars, detect material from other stars that has 

Strainrate at station BUR 

Normalized 1991 BUR strain rate 
(blue trace). Amplitude was -1.5 
times that for 2000 eruption. 


18:00 18:30 19:00 

February 26. 2000 

Fig. 6. Records of the rate of change of volumetric strain at 
a DTM strainmeter in Iceland are nearly identical for the 
period prior to and during the eruptions of the Hekla vol- 
cano in 1991 and 2000. The similarity in traces, as well as 
other geophysical data, permitted a near-term prediction of 
the 2000 eruption by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. 


YEAR BOOK pp—OO I page 6j 

been incorporated into our solar system, clock the 
growth of the first planetesimals in the solar neb- 
ula, test ideas for the formation of planets, glimpse 
the origin of the continents, and sense in real time 
the movement of magma at depth and the grind- 
ing motions of tectonic plates at fault zones. 
The validity of Bridgman's thesis that scientific 
instruments extend mankind's senses is amply 
demonstrated at the Department of Terrestrial 

— Sean C. Solomon 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

July I, 1999 -June 30, 2000 

errestrial Magnetism Personnel 

Research Staff Members 

L. Thomas Aldrich, Emeritus 

Conel M. O'D. Alexander 

Alan P. Boss 

Louis Brown, Emeritus 

R. Paul Butler 1 

Richard W. Carlson 

John A. Graham 

Erik H. Hauri 

David E. James 

Alan T. Lmde 

Vera C. Rubin 

I. Selwyn Sacks 

Francois Schweizer 2 

Steven B. Shirey 

Paul G. Silver 

Sean C. Solomon, Director 

Fouad Tera, Emeritus 

George W. Wethenll 

Senior Research Fellow 

Jocelyn Bell Bunnell, Merle A. Tuve Senior Fellow 3 
Senior Associate 

Ian D. Mac Gregor, National Science Foundation 4 
Postdoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Richard D. Ash, Carnegie Fellow and NASA 

Associate* 5 
Jonathan M. Aumou, NASA Associate" 
Joakim Bebie, Carnegie Fellow and NASA Astrobiology 

Institute Fellow* 1 
Laurie D. Benton, NSF Earth Sciences Research 

Kenneth M. Chick, Carnegie Fellow, NASA 

Astrobiology Institute Fellow, and NASA Associate 
Matthew j. Fouch, Harry Oscar Wood Fellow* 
Andrew M. Freed, NSF Earth Sciences Research 

Fellow and NASA Associate 
Monica R. Handler, Carnegie Fellow 
Emilie E. E. Hooft, NSF and NASA Associate 
Satoshi Inaba, Japan Society for the Promotion of 

Science Fellow 
Philip E. Janney, NSF Associate 
Wenjie Jiao, Carnegie Fellow and NSF Associate™ 
Karl Kehm, Carnegie Fellow 9 
Daniel D. Kelson, Barbara McClintock Fellow, Space 

Telescope Science Institute Associate, and 

NASA Associate 
Stephen j. Kortenkamp, NASA Associate 
Jie Li, Crove Karl Gilbert Fellow*- 10 
Patrick J. McGovern, NASA Associate" 
William G. Minarik, NSF Associate" 2 
Fenglm Niu, NSF Associate' 3 
Chiara M, Petrone, Italian National Research 

Council Fellow'* 
Aaron J. Pietruszka, Carnegie Fellow 
Michael W. Regan, Hubble Fellow'' 1 
Robert A, Swaters, Carnegie Fellow"' 
Harn A, T, Vanhala, NASA Associate 
Lianxing Wen, Carnegie Fellow 

Predoctoral Fellows and Associates 

Ana Lucia Novaes de Araujo, University of Brasilia 

Charles Kevin Boyce, Harvard University* 

Jaime Domi'nguez, Universidad Nacional Autonoma 

de Mexico 
Jane Gore, University of Zimbabwe 
Gordon J. Irvine, University of Durham 
Andrew H. Menzies, University of Cape Town 
Teresia K. Nguuri, University of the Witwatersrond 
Susan J. Webb, University of the Witwatersrand 

Research Interns 

Jacob A. Bauer, Spring Hill College 

Kirsten A. Brandt, Earlham College 

Thomas G Doggett, Oberlin College 

Lynne j. Elkins, Smith College 

Caleb I. Fassett, Williams College 

Jasmine Y. Foo, Brown University 

Julia F. Haltiwanger, Grinnelt College 

Patrick L Kelly, Sidwell Friends High School 

Jean N. Lee, Harvard University 

Kaisa E. Mueller, University of Missouri, Columbia 

Lan-Anh Ngoc Nguyen, University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill 
Kisha I. Steele, Howard University 

Supporting Staff 

Michael J. Acierno, Computer Systems Manager 

Maceo T. Bacote, Engineering Apprentice* 

Georg Bartels, Instrument Maker 

Jay E. Bartlett II, Machinist' 7 

Richard R. Bartholomew, Machinist, Instrument 

Mary McDermott Coder, Senior Administrator 
H. Michael Day, Facilities Manager* 
Roy R. Dingus, Building Engineer* 
Janice Scheherazade Dunlap, Assistant to the 

Pablo D. Esparza, Maintenance Technician* 
Rosa Maria Esparza, Administrative Assistant 
Shaun J. Hardy, Librarian* 
Mary Horan, Geochemistry Laboratory Manager 
Sandra A. Keiser, Scientific Computer Programmer 
William E. Key, Building Engineer* 
Randy A. Kuehnel, Geophysical Technician* 
P. Nelson McWhorter, Senior Instrument Maker, 

Shop Manager 
Timothy D. Mock, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory 

Ben K Pandit, Electronics Engineer 
Lawrence B. Patrick, Maintenance Technician* 
Daniela D. Power, Geophysical Research Assistant 
Pedro J. Roa, Maintenance Technician* 
Roy E. Scalco, Building Engineer* 
Brian P. Schleigh, Electronics Technician 
Terry L Stahl, Fiscal Officer 
Jianhua Wang, Ion Microprobe Research Specialist 
Merri Wolf, Library Technical Assistant* 

Adjunct Investigators 

Jay A. Brandes, University of Texas, Port Aransas 
Stephen S. Gao, Kansas State University, Manhattan 

Catherine L Johnson, Incorporated Research 

Institutions for Seismology 
Cecily J. Wolfe, National Science Foundation 

Visiting Investigators 

Craig R. Bina, Northwestern University 
Ingi Th. Bjarnason, University of Iceland 
Kevin C Burke, University of Houston 
Sherwood Chang, SET! Institute 
Ines L Cifuentes, Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Harry W. Green, University of California, Riverside 
Christopher R Kincaid, University of Rhode Island 
Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni, University of Michigan 
John T. Lynch, National Science Foundation 
Patrick J. McGovern, Lunar and Planetary Institute 
William G Minarik, University of Maryland, 

College Park 
Harold J. Morowitz, George Mason University 
Julie D. Morris, Washington University, St. Louis 
Larry R. Nittler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 
Jeffrey J. Park, Yale University 
D. Graham Pearson, University of Durham 
Mark A. Richards, University of California, Berkeley 
Stephen H. Richardson, University of Cape Town 
Stuart A. Rojstaczer, Duke University 
Raymond M. Russo, Jr., Northwestern University 
Jeffrey G. Ryan, University of South Florida, Tampa 
Paul A. Rydelek, University of Memphis 
Yuji Sano, Hiroshima University 
Martha K. Savage, Victoria University, New Zealand 
Yang Shen, University of Rhode Island 
David W. Simpson, Incorporated Research 

Institutions for Seismology 
J. Arthur Snoke, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 

State University 
Paul A. Tomascak, University of Maryland, 

College Park 
Douglas R. Toomey, University of Oregon 
Marian Tredoux, University of Cape Town 
Robert D. Tucker, Washington University, St. Louis 
Nathalie J. Valette-Silver, National Oceanographic 

and Atmospheric Administration 
John C. VanDecar, Nature Magazine, London 
Suzan van der Lee, Institut fur Geophysik, Zunch 
Hugh M. Van Horn, National Science Foundation 
Steven S. Vogt, Lick Observatory 
Dominique A. M. Weis, Free University of Brussels 
Elisabeth Widom, Miami University, Ohio 

1 From August 18, 1999 

2 To September 1 , 1 999 

I May 2000 

' Joint appointment with the Geophysical Laboratory 

5 To September 30, 1999 

" From Apnl 3, 2000 

7 To December 3 1, 1999 

" To June 30, 2000 

' From February 1 5, 2000 

10 To February 3, 2000 

II To October 31, 1999 
" July and August. 1999 

" From November 15, 1999 
M From October 1 , 1 999 
ls To December 3 1, 1999 
"From October 21, 1999 
"From|une 12,2000 

f Tei 

ial Magne 



YEARBOOK pp— 00 page 

Alexander, C M. O'D., Exploration of 

quantitative kinetic models for the evaporation of 
silicate melts in vacuum and hydrogen, Meteoritics 
Planet. Sa., in press. 

5699 Alexander, C. M. O'D., J. N. Grossman, J. 
Wang, B. Zanda, M. Bourot-Denise, and R. H. 
Hewins, The lack of potassium-isotopic fractiona- 
tion in Bishinpur chondrules, Meteoritics Planet. Sa. 
35, 859-868, 2000. 

Barclay, A. H., D. R. Toomey, and S. C. 

Solomon, Microearthquake characteristics and 
crustal V P /V S structure at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 
35°N,J. Geophys. Res., in press. 

5673 Becker, H„ K. P. Jochum, and R W. 
Carlson, Trace element fractionation during dehy- 
dration of eclogites from high-pressure terranes 
and the implications for element fluxes in subduc- 
tion zones, Chem. Geol. 1 63, 65-99, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

5692 Bodenheimer, P., A. Burkert, R. I. Klein, and 
A. P. Boss, Multiple fragmentation of protostars, 
in Protostars and Planets IV, V. Mannings, A. P. 
Boss, and S. S. Russell, eds., pp. 675-701, 
University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2000. 
(No reprints available.) 

5654 Bokelmann, G. H. R, and P. G. Silver, 
Mantle variations within the Canadian Shield: 
travel times from the portable broadband 
Archean-Proterozoic Transect 1989,/ Geophys. 
Res. 105,579-605,2000. 

5646 Boss, A. P., Formation of extrasolar giant 
planets: core accretion or disk instability?, Earth, 
Moon, and Planets 81, 19-26, 1998(1999). 

Boss, A. P., Star formation: three's a crowd, 
Nature 405, 405-407, 2000. 

5694 Boss, A. P., Collapse and fragmentation of 
magnetic molecular cloud cores, in Star Formation 
1 999, T Nakamoto, ed., pp. I 36- 1 40, Nobeyama 
Radio Observatory, Nobeyama, Japan, 2000. 

5697 Boss, A. P., Possible rapid gas giant planet 
formation in the solar nebula and other proto- 
planetary disks, Astrophys. j. (Lett.) 536, L 1 1 - 
LI 04, 2000. 

5707 Boss, A. P., Formation and abundance of 
planets: what might be out there? in Pale Blue Dot 
II Workshop: Habitable and Inhabited Worlds 
Beyond Our Own Solar System, L I. Caroff and D. j. 
Des Marais, eds., pp. 47-63, NASA Conference 
Publication 209595, NASA Ames Research 
Center, Moffett Field, Calif, 2000. (No reprints 

Boss, A. P., The formation of planets, in 

Science with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, A. 
Wootten, ed., Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, in press. 

Boss, A. P., From disks to planets: an 

overview, in Euroconference on Disks, 
Planetesimals, and Planets, F. Garzon et al., eds., 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
in press. 

Boss, A. P., Impact of magnetic fields on 

fragmentation, in The Formation of Binary Stars 
(International Astronomical Union Symposium 
200), R. D. Mathieu and H. Zinnecker, eds., 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
in press. 

Boss, A. P., Modes of gaseous planet for- 
mation, in Planetary Systems in the Universe: 
Observation, Formation, and Evolution (International 
Astronomical Union Symposium 202), A. J. Penny et 
al., eds., Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San 
Francisco, in press. 

Boss, A. P., Protostellar fragmentation 

enhanced by magnetic fields, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 
in press. 

Boss, A. P., Rapid gas giant planet forma- 
tion, in Bioastronomy 99: A New Era in 
Bioastronomy, G. A. Lemarchand, ed., 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
in press. 

5647 Boss, A. P., C A. Beichman, and H. A. 
Thronson, NASA and the search for extrasolar 
planets, Earth, Moon, and Planets 81, 35-38, 1998 

5652 Boss, A. P., R. T Fisher, R. I. Klein, and C F. 
McKee, The Jeans condition and collapsing molec- 
ular cloud cores: filaments or binaries? Astrophys. j. 
528, 325-335, 2000. 

5690 Boss, A. P., and H. A. T. Vanhala, Triggering 
protostellar collapse, injection, and disk formation, 
Space Sa Rev. 92, I 3-22, 2000. 

5682 Brandon, A. D„ J. E. Snow, R J. Walker, J. 
W. Morgan, and T D, Mock, |q °Pt- l8t Os and l87 Re- 
l87 Os systematics of abyssal peridotites, Earth 
Planet. Sa. Lett. I 77, 3 19-335, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

5648 Brown, L, A Radar History of World War II: 
Technical and Military Imperatives, Institute of 
Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia, 563 
pp., 1999. (Available for purchase from the pub- 
lisher and in bookstores.) 

5696 Brown, L, transl. and ed., GEMA: Birthplace 
of German Radar and Sonar, by H. von Kroge, 
Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and 
Philadelphia, 206 pp., 2000. (Available for pur- 
chase from the publisher.) 

5657 Butler, R. P., Prospecting for planets, 
Natural History 109 (no. I), 67-69, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

Butler, R P., G. W. Marcy, S. S. Vogt, and 

D. A. Fischer, Statistical properties of extrasolar 
planets, in Planetary Systems in the Universe: 
Observation, Formation, and Evolution (International 
Astronomical Union Symposium 202), A. Penny et 
al., eds., Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San 
Francisco, in press. 

Butler, R. P., S. S. Vogt, G. W. Marcy, D. A. 

Fischer, G. W. Henry, and K Apps, Planetary 
companions to the metal rich stars BD- 1 3 1 66 
and HD 52265, Astrophys. J., in press. 

5665 Carlson, R. W., F. R. Boyd, S. B. Shirey, P. E. 
Janney, T. L Grove, S. A. Bowring, M. D. Schmitz, 
J. C Dann, D. R. Bell, J. J. Gurney, S. H. 
Richardson, M. Tredoux, A. H. Menzies, D. G. 
Pearson, R. J. Hart, A. H. Wilson, and D. Moser, 
Continental growth, preservation, and modifica- 
tion in southern Africa, GSA Today 10 (no. 2), 
I -7, 2000. 

5658 Carlson, R. W„ A. J. Irving, and B C Hearn, 
Jr., Chemical and isotopic systematics of peridotite 
xenoliths from the Williams kimberlite, Montana: 
clues to processes of lithosphere formation, mod- 
ification, and destruction, in Proceedings of the Vllth 
International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et 

al., eds., pp. 90-98, Red Roof Design, Cape Town, 
South Africa, 1 999. 

57 1 3 Carlson, R. W„ and G W. Lugmair, 
Timescales of planetesimal formation and differ- 
entiation based on extinct and extant radioiso- 
topes, in Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M. 
Canup and K. Righter, eds., pp. 25-44, University 
of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2000. (No reprints 
available. Available online at 

5659 Carlson, R. W., D. G. Pearson, F. R Boyd, 
S. B. Shirey, G. Irvine, A. H. Menzies, and J. J. 
Gurney, Re-Os systematics of lithospheric peri- 
dotites: implications for lithosphere formation 
and preservation, in Proceedings of the Vllth 
International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et 
al., eds., pp. 99-108, Red Roof Design, Cape 
Town, South Africa, 1 999. 

Chambers, J. E., and G W. Wetherill, 

Planets in the asteroid belt, Meteoritics Planet. Sci., 
in press. 

5684 Constable, C. G, C L. Johnson, and S. P. 
Lund, Global geomagnetic field models for the 
past 3000 years: transient or permanent flux 
lobes? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 358, 99 I - 
1008, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

57 1 I Dunn, R A., D. R. Toomey, and S. C. 
Solomon, Three-dimensional seismic structure 
and physical properties of the crust and shallow 
mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise at 9°30'N, j. 
Geophys. Res. 105, 23537-23555, 2000. 

5704 Fassett, C I., and J. A. Graham, Age, evolu- 
tion, and dispersion of the loose groups of blue 
stars in the northeast radio lobe of Centaurus A, 
Astrophys.]. 538, 594-607, 2000. 

570 1 Ferrarese, L, H. C Ford, J. Huchra, R. C 
Kennicutt, Jr., J. R. Mould, S. Sakai, W. L 
Freedman, P. B. Stetson, B. F. Madore, B. K. 
Gibson, J. A. Graham, S. M. Hughes, G. D. 
Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, L. Macri, K. Sebo, and 
N. A. Silbermann, A database of Cepheid distance 
moduli and tip of the red giant branch, globular 
cluster luminosity function, planetary nebula lumi- 
nosity function, and surface brightness fluctuation 
data useful for distance determinations, Astrophys. 
J. Suppl. Ser. 1 28, 43 I -459, 2000. (No reprints 

5668 Ferrarese, L, J. R Mould, R C Kennicutt, 
Jr., J. P. Huchra, H. C Ford, W. L Freedman, P. B. 
Stetson, B. F. Madore, S. Sakai, B K Gibson, J. A. 
Graham, S. M. Hughes, G D. Illingworth, D. D. 
Kelson, L Macri, K Sebo, and N. A. Silbermann, 
The Hubble Space Telescope key project on the 
extragalactic distance scale. XXVI. The calibration 
of population II secondary distance indicators and 
the value of the Hubble constant, Astrophys. J. 
529, 745-767, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

Fischer, D. A, G. W. Marcy, R P. Butler, S. 

S. Vogt, S. Frink, and K. Apps, Planetary compan- 
ions to HD 1 266 1 , HD 92788, HD 38529 and 
variations in Keplerian residuals of extrasolar 
planets, Astrophys. J., in press. 

5705 Franx, M„ P. van Dokkum, D. Kelson, and 
G. D. Illingworth, Passive evolution, or the evolu- 
tion of the M/L ratio of early-type galaxies to 
z=0.83, in Dynamics of Galaxies: From the Early 
Universe to the Present, F. Combes, G. A. Mamon, 
and V Charmandaris, eds., pp. 23 1 -236, 
Conference Series, Vol. 1 97, Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2000. 


page JO I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

567 1 Gao, S. S, P. G. Silver, and A. T. Lmde, 
Analysis of deformation data at Parkfield, 
California: detection of a long-term strain tran- 
sient,/ Geophys. Res. 105, 2955-2967, 2000. 

5702 Gao, S. S, P. G. Silver, A. T. Lmde, and I. S. 
Sacks, Annual modulation of triggered seismicity 
following the 1992 Landers earthquake in 
California, Nature 406, 500-504, 2000. 

5667 Gibson, B. K, P. B. Stetson, W. L 
Freedman, J. R. Mould, R. C Kennicutt, Jr., J. P. 
Huchra, S. Sakai, G. A. Graham, C I. Fassett, D. D. 
Kelson, L Ferrarese, S. M. G. Hughes, G. D. 
Illingworth, L M. Macn, B. F. Madore, K. M. 
Sebo, and N. A. Silbermann, The Hubble Space 
Telescope key project on the extragalactic dis- 
tance scale. XXV. A recalibration of Cepheid 
distances to type la supernovae and the value of 
the Hubble constant, Astrophys.j. 529, 723-744, 
2000. (No reprints available.) 

57 1 Golimowski, D. A, T. J. Henry, J. E. Knst, 
D. J. Schroeder, G W. Marcy, D. A. Fischer, and 
R. P. Butler, The very low mass component of 
the Gliese 105 system, Astron.j. 120, 2082-2088, 
2000. (No reprints available.) 

5693 Goswami, j. N„ and H. A. T. Vanhala, 
Extinct radionuclides and the origin of the solar 
system, in Protostars and Planets IV, V. Mannings, 
A. P. Boss, and S. S. Russell, eds., pp. 963-994, 
University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

5687 Grossman, J. N., C M, O'D. Alexander, J. 
Wang, and A. J. Brearley, Bleached chondrules: 
evidence for widespread aqueous processes on 
the parent asteroids of ordinary chondrites, 
Meteoritics Planet. So. 35, 467-486, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

Hatzes, A., W. D. Cochran, B. McArthur, S. 

L Baliunas, G A. H. Walker, B. Campbell, A. W. 
Irwin, S. Yang, M. Kurster, M. Endl, S. Els, R. P. 
Butler, and G. W. Marcy, Evidence for a long- 
period planet orbiting e Eridani, Astrophys.j. (Lett.) 
in press. 

Hauri, E. H, SIMS investigations of volatiles 

in volcanic glasses. 2. Abundances and isotopes in 
Hawaiian melt inclusions, Chem. Geol., in press. 

5660 Hauri, E. H„ D. G. Pearson, G. P. Bulanova, 
and H. J. Milledge, Microscale variations in C and 
N isotopes within mantle diamonds revealed by 
SIMS, in Proceedings of the Vllth International 
Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et al., eds., pp. 
34 1 -347, Red Roof Design, Cape Town, South 
Africa, 1999. 

Hauri, E. H„ J. Wang, J. E. Dixon, P. L King, 

C. Mandeville, and S. Newman, SIMS investiga- 
tions of volatiles in volcanic glasses. I. Calibration, 
sensitivity, and matrix effects, Chem. Geol., in 

5655 Henry, G W„ G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, 
and S. S. Vogt, A transiting "5 I Peg-like" planet, 
Astrophys.j. (Lett.) 529, L4I-L44, 2000. 

5727 Herrick, R. R„ and P. J. McGovern, Kunhild 
and Ereshkigal, an extinct hot-spot region on 
Venus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 839-842, 2000. 
(No reprints available.) 

568 1 Hooft, E. E. E., R. S. Detnck, D. R. Toomey, 
j. A. Collins, and j. Lin, Crustal thickness and struc- 
ture along three contrasting spreading segments 
of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 33.5°-35°N,J. Geophys. 
Res. 105, 8205-8226, 2000. 

lidaka, T, and F. Niu, Seismic anisotropy 

beneath the Lau back-arc basin inferred from 
sScS-ScS splitting data, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press. 

Inaba, S., H. Tanaka, K. Nakazawa, G. W. 

Wetherill, and E. Kokubo, High-accuracy statistical 
simulation of planetary accretion. II. Comparison 
with N-body simulation, Icarus, in press. 

Jiao, W., P. G Silver, Y. Fei, and C T 

Prewitt, Do intermediate- and deep-focus earth- 
quakes occur on preexisting weak zones? An 
examination of the Tonga subduction zone,/ 
Geophys. Res., in press. 

5683 Johnson, C L, S. C Solomon, J. W. Head, 
III, R. J. Phillips, D. E. Smith, and M. T Zuber, 
Lithospheric loading by the northern polar cap 
on Mars, Icarus 144, 31 3-328, 2000. 

5669 Kelson, D. D„ G. D. Illingworth, J. L Tonry, 
W. L. Freedman, R. C. Kennicutt, Jr., J. R. Mould, J. 
A. Graham, J. P. Huchra, L M. Macn, B. F. Madore, 
L Ferrarese, B. K. Gibson, S. Sakai, P. B. Stetson, E. 
A. A]har, J. P. Blakeslee, A. Dressier, H. C Ford, S. 
M. G. Hughes, K. M. Sebo, and N. A. Silbermann, 
The Hubble Space Telescope key project on the 
extragalactic distance scale. XXVII. A derivation of 
the Hubble constant using the fundamental plane 
and D n -o relations in Leo I, Virgo, and Fornax, 
Astrophys.j. 529, 768-785, 2000. 

5678 Kelson, D. D., G D. Illingworth, P. G van 
Dokkum, and M. Franx, The evolution of early- 
type galaxies in distant clusters. I. Surface pho- 
tometry and structural parameters for 53 galaxies 
in the z=0.33 cluster CI I 358+62, Astrophys.j. 
531, 137-158,2000. 

5679 Kelson, D. D„ G D. Illingworth, P. G van 
Dokkum, and M. Franx, The evolution of early- 
type galaxies in distant clusters. II. Internal kine- 
matics of 55 galaxies in the z=0.33 cluster CI 

I 358+62, Astrophys. J.531,1 59- 1 83, 2000. 

5680 Kelson, D. D„ G. D. Illingworth, P. G. van 
Dokkum, and M. Franx, The evolution of early- 
type galaxies in distant clusters. III. M/L v ratios in 
the z=0.33 cluster CI I 358+62, Astrophys. j. 53 1 
1 84- 1 99, 2000. 

5730 Koeberl, C, S. B. Shirey, and W. U. 
Reimold, Re-Os isotopic characteristics of brec- 
cias and target rocks from the Pretoria Saltpan 
impact crater, in Tswaing: Investigations into the 
Origin, Age, and Palaeoenvironments of the Pretoria 
Saltpan, T C. Partridge, ed., Memoir no. 85, 
Geological Survey of South Africa, Pretoria, 1999. 
(No reprints available.) 

Kortenkamp, S. J., S. F. Dermott, D. Fogel, 

and K. Grogan, Sources and orbital evolution of 
interplanetary dust accreted by Earth, in Accretion 
of Extraterrestrial Matter throughout Earth's History, 
B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink and B. Schmitz, eds., 
Kluwer, Dordrecht, in press. 

57 1 4 Kortenkamp, S. J., E. Kokubo, and S. J. 
Weidenschilling, Formation of planetary embryos, 
in Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M. Canup and 
K. Righter, eds., pp. 85-100, University of Arizona 
Press, Tucson, 2000. (No reprints available. 
Available online at 

5663 Kortenkamp, S. J., and G W. Wetherill, 
Terrestrial planet and asteroid formation in the 
presence of giant planets. I. Relative velocities of 
planetesimals subject to Jupiter and Saturn pertur- 
bations, Icarus 1 43, 60-73, 2000. 

5685 Lassiter, J. C, E. H. Hauri, P. W. Reiners, 
and M. O. Garcia, Generation of Hawaiian post- 
erosional lavas by melting of a mixed 
Iherzolite/pyroxenite source, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 
1 78, 269-284, 2000. 

5725 Lmde, A. T, M. T Gladwin, and R. L. 
Gwyther, A slow earthquake sequence on the 
San Andreas Fault, in CSIRO Exploration and 
Mining Research Review, pp. 1 40- 1 42, Star 
Pnntery, Erskineville, N.S.W., Australia, 1999. (No 
reprints available.) 

Madore, B. F„ W. L Freedman, N. 

Silbermann, P. Harding, J. R. Mould, J. Huchra, j. A. 
Graham, L Ferrarese, B. K. Gibson, M. Han, j. G. 
Hoessel, S. M. Hughes, G. D. Illingworth, R. 
Phelps, S. Sakai, and P. Stetson, The Hubble Space 
Telescope key project on the extragalactic dis- 
tance scale. XV. Implications of a Cepheid dis- 
tance to the Fornax cluster, Astrophys.j., in press. 

569 I Mannings, V., A. P. Boss, and S. S. Russell, 
eds., Protostars and Planets IV, University of 
Arizona Press, Tucson, 1422 pp., 2000. (Available 
for purchase from the publisher.) 

5675 Marcy, G W„ and R. P. Butler, Hunting 
planets beyond, Astronomy 28 (no. 3), 42-47 ', 
2000. (No reprints available.) 

5656 Marcy, G W., and R. P. Butler, Planets 
orbiting other suns, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific I 1 2, 
I 37- 1 40, 2000. 

5695 Marcy, G. W„ R. P. Butler, and S. S. Vogt, 
Sub-Saturn planetary candidates of HD 1 6 1 4 1 
and HD 46375, Astrophys.j. (Lett.) 536, L43- 
L46, 2000. 

Marcy, G W„ D. A. Fischer, R. P. Butler, 

and S. S. Vogt, Planetary messages in the Doppler 
residuals, in Planetary Systems in the Universe: 
Observation, Formation, and Evolution (International 
Astronomical Union Symposium 202), A. Penny et 
al., eds., Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San 
Francisco, in press. 

57 1 8 Meltzer, A., R. Rudnick, P. Zeitler, A. 
Levander, G. Humphreys, K. Karlstrom, G. 
Ekstrom, R. Carlson, T Dixon, M. Gurnis, P. 
Shearer, and R. van der Hilst, USArray initiative, 
GSA Today 9 (no. I I), 8-10, 1999. (No reprints 

566 1 Menzies, A. H, R. W. Carlson, S. B. Shirey, 
and J. J. Gurney, Re-Os systematics of Newlands 
peridotite xenoliths: implications for diamond and 
lithosphere formation, in Proceedings of the Vllth 
International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et 
al., eds., pp. 566-573, Red Roof Design, Cape 
Town, South Africa, 1 999. 

5670 Mould, J. R, J. P. Huchra, W. L Freedman, 
R. C Kennicutt, jr., L Ferrarese, H. C Ford, B. K. 
Gibson, J. A. Graham, S. M. G Hughes, G. D. 
Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, L M. Macn, B. F. 
Madore, S. Sakai, K Sebo, N. A. Silbermann, and 
P. B. Stetson, The Hubble Space Telescope key 
project on the extragalactic distance scale. XXVIII. 
Combining the constraints on the Hubble con- 
stant, Astrophys. J. 529, 786-794, 2000. (No 
reprints available.) 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism Bibliography 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO I page yi 

5653 Mould, J. R, S. M. G. Hughes, P. B. Stetson, 
B. K. Gibson, J. P, Huchra, W. L Freedman, R. C. 
Kennicutt, Jr., F, Bresolin, L Ferrarese, H. C. Ford, 
J, A. Graham, M. Han, J. G. Hoessel, G. D. 
Illingworth, D. D. Kelson, L, M. Macn, B. F. 
Madore, R. L Phelps, C. F. Prosser, D. Rawson, A. 
Saha, S. Sakai] K. M. Sebo, N. A. Silbermann, and 
A. M. Turner, The Hubble Space Telescope key 
project on the extragalactic distance scale. XXI. 
The Cepheid distance to NGC 1 425, Astrophys.J. 
528, 655-676, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

Mueller, K. E., and J. A. Graham, Young 

stars associated with the reflection nebula NGC 
2626, Publ. Astron, Soc. Pacific, in press. 

5728 Nittler, L R, and C M. O'D. Alexander, 
Can stellar dynamics explain the metallicity distri- 
butions of presolar grains? Astrophys. J. 526, 249- 
256, 1999. 

573 I Pearson, D. G, and S. B. Shirey, Isotopic 
dating of diamonds, in Application of Radiogenic 
Isotopes to Ore Deposit Research and Exploration, 
D. D. Lambert and J. Ruiz, eds„ pp. 1 43- 1 72, 
Reviews in Economic Geology, Vol. 1 2, Society of 
Economic Geologists, Littleton, Colo., 1999. 

5662 Pearson, D. G, S. B. Shirey, G. P. Bulanova, 
R. W. Carlson, and H. J. Milledge, Dating and par- 
agenetic distinction of diamonds using the Re-Os 
isotope system: application to some Siberian dia- 
monds, in Proceedings of the Vllth International 
Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney et al„ eds„ pp. 
637-643, Red Roof Design, Cape Town, South 
Africa, 1999. 

5676 Polet, J„ P. G. Silver, S. Beck, T. Wallace, G. 
Zandt, S. Ruppert, R. Kind, and A. Rudloff, Shear 
wave anisotropy beneath the Andes from the 
BANJO, SEDA, and PISCO experiments,; 
Geophys. Res. {05, 6287-6304, 2000. 

5708 Regan, M. W„ Overlummous CO in the 
central regions of spiral galaxies, Astrophys.J. 541 , 
142-152, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

5674 Regan, M. W„ K. Sheth, and S. N. Vogel, 
Molecular gas kinematics in barred spiral galaxies, 
Astrophys.J. 526, 97-1 13, 1999. (No reprints 

5672 Richardson, W. P., E. A. Okal, and S. van 
der Lee, Rayleigh-wave tomography of the 
Ontong-Java Plateau, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 
1 18, 29-5 1 , 2000. (No reprints available.) 

5686 Rubin, V. C, Roman's correlation between 
spectra and motions of intermediate-type stars, 
Astrophys.J. 525 (centennial issue), 401, 1999. 

5689 Rubin, V. C, One hundred years of rotat- 
ing galaxies, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific I 1 2, 747- 
750, 2000. 

5724 Rubin, V. C, What we cannot see and yet 
know must be there, in The Book of the Cosmos: 
Imagining the Universe from Heraclitus to Hawking, 
D. R. Danielson, ed„ pp. 498-505, Helix 
Books/Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Mass., 
2000. [Reprinted from Scientific American Presents 
(special quarterly issue: Magnificent Cosmos) 9, no. 
I, 106-1 10, 1998.] (No reprints available.) 

Rubin, V. G, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, in 

Contribution of Women to Twentieth Century 
Physics, N. Byers, ed., IOP, London, in press. 

Rubin, V. C, and J. Haltiwanger, Disturbed 

kinematics in Virgo cluster spirals, in Galaxy Disks 
and Disk Galaxies, J. G. Funes and E. M. Corsini, 
eds„ Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San 
Francisco, in press. 

57 1 5 Rushmer, T, W. G. Mmank, and G. J. 
Taylor, Physical processes of core formation, in 
Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M. Canup and K. 
Righter, eds„ pp. 227-243, University of Arizona 
Press, Tucson, 2000. (No reprints available. 
Available online at 

5733 Sacks, I. S„ K. Suyehiro, G D. Acton, M. J. 
Acierno, E. Araki, M. V. S. Ask, A. Ikeda, T 
Kanamatsu, G. Y. Kim, J. Li, A. T Lmde, P. N. 
McWhorter, G Mora, Y. M. R. Najman, N. 
Niitsuma, B. K Pandit, S. Roller, S. Saito, T 
Sakamoto, M. Shinohara, and Y.-F. Sun, Western 
Pacific Geophysical Observatories, Sites I 1 50 and 
1151, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, 
Initial Reports, Vol. 1 86, ODP/Texas A&M 
University, College Station, Tex., 2000. 
(No reprints available. Available online at 
www. odp.tamu. edu I publications) 

5666 Sakai, S., J. R. Mould, S. M. G. Hughes, J. P. 
Huchra, L M. Macri, R. C Kennicutt, Jr., B. K. 
Gibson, L Ferrarese, W. L Freedman, M. Han, 
H. C. Ford, J. A. Graham, G. D. Illingworth, D. D. 
Kelson, B. F. Madore, K Sebo, N. A. Silbermann, 
and P. B. Stetson, The Hubble Space Telescope key 
project on the extragalactic distance scale. XXIV. 
The calibration of Tully-Fisher relations and the 
value of the Hubble constant, Astrophys.J. 529, 
698-722, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

5723 Schaap, W. E.,R. Sancisi, and R. A. Swaters, 
The vertical extent and kinematics of the HI in 
NGC 2403, Astron. Astrophys. (Lett.) 356, L49- 
L52, 2000. 

5719 Schweizer, R, Effects of late mergers on 
stellar populations in E and SO galaxies, Astrophys. 
Space Sci. 267, 299-307, 1999. (No reprints 

5720 Schweizer, F„ Young globular clusters, in 
Spectrophotometry Dating of Stars and Galaxies, I. 
Hubeny, S. Heap and R. Cornett, eds., pp. I 35- 
142, Conference Series, Vol. 192, Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 1999. 

(No reprints available.) 

5729 Sheth, K„ M. W. Regan, S. N. Vogel, and P. 
J. Teuben, Molecular gas, dust, and star formation 
in the barred spiral NGC 5383, Astrophys.J. 532, 
221-237, 2000. (No reprints available.) 

5664 Solomon, S. C, Return to the iron planet, 
New Scientist 165 (no. 2223), 32-35, 29 January 
2000. (No reprints available.) 

565 I Stern, C R, R Kilian, B. Olker, E. H. Haun, 
and T K. Kyser, Evidence from mantle xenoliths 
for relatively thin (100 km) continental lithos- 
phere below the Phanerozoic crust of southern- 
most South America, Lithos 48, 217-235, 1999. 

5732 Suyehiro, K, S. Sacks, G. Acton, and the 
Leg 1 86 Scientific Party, Japan Trench geophysical 
observatories: ODP Leg 186, JOIDES Journal 26 
(no. I), 10-16,2000. 

5722 Swaters, R A, B. F. Madore, and M. 
Trewhella, High-resolution rotation curves of low 
surface brightness galaxies, Astrophys.J. (Lett.) 531, 
LI07-LI 10,2000. 

5726 Takanami, T„ I. S. Sacks, and A. Hasegawa, 
Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front 
in northeastern japan from broad-band seismo- 
grams, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 121, 339-357, 

5698 Tomascak, P. B„ J. G Ryan, and M. J. 
Defant, Lithium isotope evidence for light ele- 
ment decoupling in the Panama subarc mantle, 
Geology 28, 507-5 1 0, 2000. 

57 1 7 Tredoux, M„ R. J. Hart, R. W. Carlson, and 
S. B. Shirey, Ultramafic rocks at the center of the 
Vredefort structure: further evidence for the crust 
on edge model, Geology 27, 923-926, 1999. 

5649 Valette-Silver, N. J., Preface [to special 
issue: Using sediments and biota to assess coastal 
and estuarine contamination], Mar. Environ. Res. 
48, 265-267, 1999. (No reprints available.) 

5650 Valette-Silver, N. J„ G F. Redel, E. A. 
Crecelius, H. Windom, R. G Smith, and S. S. 
Dolvin, Elevated arsenic concentrations in 
bivalves from the southeast coasts of the USA, 
Mar. Environ. Res. 48, 31 1-333, 1999. (No 
reprints available.) 

5709 van Dokkum, P. G, M. Franx, D. Fabncant, 
G. D. Illingworth, and D. C. Kelson, Hubble Space 
Telescope photometry and Keck spectroscopy of 
the rich cluster MS 1 054-03: morphologies, 
Butcher-Oemler effect, and the color-magnitude 
relation at z=0.83, Astrophys.J. 54/, 95-1 I I, 2000. 
(No reprints available.) 

5706 van Dokkum, P., M. Franx, D. Fabncant, D. 
Kelson, and G. Illingworth, Luminous red mergers 
in the z=0.83 cluster MS 1054-03: direct evidence 
for hierarchical formation of massive early-type 
galaxies, in Dynamics of Galaxies: From the Early 
Universe to the Present, F. Combes, G. A. Mamon, 
and V. Charmandaris, eds., pp. 393-396, 
Conference Series, Vol. 1 97, Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2000. 

VanDecar, J. C, R M. Russo, D. E. James, 

W. B. Ambeh, and M. Franke, Aseismic continua- 
tion of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath continen- 
tal South America,]. Geophys. Res., in press. 

5703 Vanhala, H. A. T, and A. P. Boss, Injection 
of radioactivities into the presolar cloud: conver- 
gence testing, Astrophys.J. 538, 9 1 I -92 1 , 2000. 

5700 Vogt, S. S„ G W. Marcy, R P. Butler, and 
K Apps, Six new planets from the Keck precision 
velocity survey, Astrophys.J. 536, 902-914, 2000. 

Wen, L, Intense seismic scattering near 

the Earth's core-mantle boundary beneath the 
Comoros hotspot, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press. 

57 1 2 Wetherill, G W„ and S. Inaba, Planetary 
accumulation with a continuous supply of plan- 
etesimals, Space Sa. Rev. 92, 3 I I -320, 2000. 

572 1 Whitmore, B. C, Q. Zhang, C Leitherer, S. 
M. Fall, F. Schweizer, and B. W. Miller, The lumi- 
nosity function of young star clusters in "The 
Antennae" galaxies (NGC 4038/4039), Astron. J. 
118, 1551-1576, 1999. (No reprints available.) 

571 6 Wolfe, C. j„ Mid-ocean ridge structures, in 
McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 
2000, pp. 257-259, McGraw-Hill, New York, 
1999. (No reprints available.) 

5677 Zuber, M. T, S. C Solomon, R J. Phillips, 
D. E. Smith, G L Tyler, O. Aharonson, G 
Balmino, W. B. Banerdt, J. W. Head, C L 
Johnson, F. G. Lemoine, P. J. McGovern, G. A. 
Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, and S. Zhong, Internal 
structure and early thermal evolution of Mars 
from Mars Global Surveyor topography and 
gravity, Science 287, 1788-1793, 2000. 

:arnegie instituti 

page 72 YEAR BOOK pp~ 00 

xtradepartmental and Administrative 

Carnegie Administrative Personnel 

Lloyd Allen, Building Maintenance Specialist 
Sharon Bassin, Secretary to the President' /Assistant to the President 2 
Sherrill Berger, Research Assistant, External Affairs 
Andrea Bremer, Business Coordinator 3 
Gloria Brienza, Budget and Management Analysis Manager 
Don A. Brooks, Building Maintenance Specialist 
Cady Canapp, Manager, Human Resources and Insurance 
Ellen Carpenter, Assistant Editor 
Margaret Charles, Secretary* 
Karin Dasuki, Financial Accountant 
Sonja DeCarlo, Grants and Operations Manager 
Susanne Garvey, Director of External Affairs 
Claire Hardy, Staff Assistant 1 

Margaret Hazen, Staff Director, Centennial Committee 
Susan Humphreys, Administrative Secretary 5 /Secretary to the President 6 
Darla Keefer, Administrative Secretary 
Ann Keyes, Payroll Coordinator 
Charles Kim, Systems Administrator 
John Lively, Director of Administration and Finance 
Tina McDowell, Editor and Publications Officer 
Trong Nguyen, Financial Accountant 
Michael Pimenov, Endowment Manager 7 
Arnold Pryor, Facilities and Services Supervisor 
Michelle Robinson, Housekeeper 
Linda Schweizer, Assistant Director of External Affairs 1 
Maxine F. Singer, President 
John Strom, Facilities Coordinator 8 /Web Manager 3 
Kris Sundback, Financial Manager 

Vickie Tucker, Administrative Coordinator/Accounts Payable 
Susan Vasquez, Assistant to the President" 

Yulonda White, Human Resources and Insurance Records Coordinator 
Jacqueline Williams, Assistant to Manager, Human Resources and 

To January 1 , 2000 
' From January 2. 2000 
1 From June 5, 2000 
'To August 23, 1999 
' To February 6, 2000 

8 From February 7, 2000 
7 From August 2, 1 999 
' To June 4. 2000 
' To December 31, 1 999 


my for Science Education 

Alva Abdussalaam, Mentor Teacher' 

Kim Abies, Mentor Teacher' 

Dayo Akinsheye, Mentor Teacher 11 

Sarah Bax, Mentor Teacher 2 

Ines Cifuentes, CASE Director 12 

Namaal DeSilva, CASE Intern 1 

Sandra Dobson, Mentor Teacher' 

Asonja Dorsey, Mentor Teacher' 1 

Julie Edmonds, Consultant 1 , CASE Associate Director 1 

Daniel Feinberg, Mentor Teacher' 2 

Linda Feinberg, CASE Administrator and Editor' 1 

Alida Fenner, Mentor Teacher 1 2 

Maritsa George, Mentor Teacher' 

Jacqueline Goodloe, Mentor Teacher' 2 

Charles James, CASE and First Light Director 1 , CASE Science Coordinator 2 

Nicolas Krump, Mentor Teacher 1 

Karman Mack, CASE Intern 1 

Asha Mathur, Mentor Teacher 1 

Fran McCrackin, Mentor Teacher 1 

Sharon Musa, Mentor Teacher' 2 

Beth Nalker, Mentor Teacher 2 

Thomas Nassif, Mentor Teacher' 2 

Monica Negoye, Consultant, Mathematics Institute 12 

Daniel Robison, Mentor Teacher' 

Tiffany Rolling, CASE Intern 2 

Amy Seitz, CASE Intern' 

Jennifer Seligmann, CASE Intern' 

Gregory Taylor, Mentor Teacher' , CASE and First Light Coordinator 1 

Derric Turner, CASE Intern' 2 

Nirav Vakharia, Mentor Teacher' 

Sue P. White, Mathematics Institute Director' 1 

Latisha Whitley, CASE Intern 1 

Laurie Young, Mentor Teacher 1 2 

Summer Institute. 1999 
: Summer Institute, 2000 

May 2000, board of trustees: First row (from left): Michael Gellert, Tom Urban (chairman), Maxine Singer (president) 
Suzanne Nora Johnson, David Swensen. Second row: Sandra Faber, Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., Tom Cori, Burton 
McMurtry, Philip Abelson, Gary Ernst. Third row: John Diebold, Bruce Ferguson, David Greenewalt (secretary), 
Robert Goelet, Jaylee Mead, John Crawford, Christopher Stone, James Ebert, William Rutter, Frank Press. 
Not pictured: Euan Baird, Daniel Belin, William Coleman, Jr., William Golden, William Hearst III, Kazuo Inamori, 
Gerald Laubach, Steven McKnight, John Macomber, Richard Meserve, William I. M. Turner, Jr. (vice-chairman). 


Public Forums on the Meaning of Science 

In spring 2000, the administration building was 
the site of the newly initiated lecture series, 
"Reflections on Science: Public Forums on the 
Meaning of Science." Sponsored by the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington and Virginia Tech's 
Science and Technology Studies Program, these 
free public forums sought to encourage discussion 
between the audience and the presenters. 

YEAR BOOK pp~00 page 75 

February 8, 2000 The Challenge of Human Genetic 
Testing, with Doris Zallen and Maxine Singer 

March 7, 2000 Technology and Discovery in 
Astronomy, with Joe Pitt and Alan Boss 

April 4, 2000 On the Origins of Life, with Bob 
Hazen and Chris Cosans 

Publications of the President 

Singer, Maxine F., Enhancing the postdoctoral experience, Issues in Science I 7, 43, 2000. 
Singer, Maxine F„ Enhancing the U.S. postdoctoral experience, Science 289, 2047, 2000. 
Singer, Maxine F., Shaping the future for women in science, ASCB Newsletter 23, I 5, 2000. 

The Capital Science Lectures are sponsored by the institution with substantial support from 
Baxter International, Inc., Human Genome Sciences, Inc., and the Johnson & Johnson Family 
of Companies. The lectures — free and open to the public — are held in the Root Auditorium at 
Carnegie's headquarters at 16th and P Streets in northwest Washington, D.C. Speakers also meet 
informally with groups of high school students. During the 1999-2000 year, the following lectures 
were given: 


Exploring the Minded Brain, by Antonio R. Damasio (College of Medicine, Department of 
Neurology, University of Iowa), October 19, 1999 

Landmark Images from the Hubble Telescope: Magic and Meaning, by Sandra M. Faber (Lick 
Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz), November 16, 1999 

Genomic Imprinting: A Genetic Arms Race, by Shirley M. Tilghman (Lewis Thomas Laboratory, 
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University), December 14, 1999 

Cancer Biology: From Scientific Revolution to Clinical Breakthrough, by Richard Klausner (National 
Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland), February 22, 2000 

The Archaeology of Agricultural Origins, by Frank Hole (C. J. MacCurdy Professor of Anthropology, 
Department of Anthropology, Yale University), March 21, 2000 

On Coincidences, by Perci Diaconis (Department of Mathematics and Department of Statistics, 
Stanford University), April 18, 2000 

Genes, Behavior, and the Sense of Smell, by Cornelia Isabella Bargmann (Department of Anatomy, 
University of California, San Francisco), May 16, 2000 

*The lecture scheduled for January 25, 2000, The Invisible Forest: Phytoplankton and Global Change, by 

Sallie W. Chisholm (Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Biology, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology) was canceled because of a snowstorm. She gave this lecture on 
November 28, 2000. 


page 74 YEAR BOOK pp~00 

for the year ended June 30, 2000 

Financial Profile 

Reader's Note: In this section, any discussion of spending levels or 
endowment amounts are on a cash or cash-equivalent basis. Therefore, 
the funding amounts presented do not reflect the impact of capitalization, 
depreciation, or other non-cash items. 

The primary source of support for Carnegie 
Institution of Washington's activities continues to 
be its endowment. This reliance has led to an 
important degree of independence in the research 
program of the institution. This independence is 
anticipated to continue as a mainstay of Carnegie's 
approach to science in the future. 

At June 30, 2000, the endowment was valued at 
approximately $479.9 million and had a total return 
(net of management fees) of 10.8%. The annualized 
five-year return for the endowment was 14.0%. 

For a number of years, Carnegie's endowment has 
been allocated among a broad spectrum of asset 
classes. This includes fixed-income instruments 
(bonds), equities (stocks), absolute return invest- 
ments, real estate partnerships, private equity, an 
oil and gas partnership and a hedge fund. The goal 
of diversifying the endowment into alternative 
assets is to reduce the volatility inherent in an 
undiversified portfolio while generating attractive 
overall performance. 

In its private equity allocation, the institution 
accepts a higher level of risk in exchange for a 
higher return. By entering into real estate partner- 
ships, the institution in effect, holds part of its 
endowment in high-quality commercial real estate, 
deriving both capital appreciation and income in 
the form of rent from tenants. Along with the oil 
and gas partnership, this asset class provides an 
effective hedge against inflation. Finally, through 
its investments in an absolute return partnership 
and a hedge fund, the institution seeks to achieve 
long-term returns similar to those of traditional 
U.S. equities with reduced volatility and risk. 

The finance committee of the board regularly 
examines the asset allocation of the endowment 
and readjusts the allocation, as appropriate. The 
institution relies upon external managers and part- 
nerships to conduct the investment activities, and it 
employs a commercial bank to maintain custody. 

The following chart shows the allocation of the 
institution's endowment among the asset classes it 
uses as of June 30, 2000: 



Common Stock 



Alternative Assets 



Fixed Income 






Actual Asset Allocation 

33.6% Common Stock 

23.7% Fixed Income 


4 1 .3% Alternative 

Carnegie's primary purpose is to maintain the 
long-term spending power of its endowment. 
To achieve this objective, it employs a budgeting 
methodology that provides for: 

• averaging the total market value of the 
endowment for the three most recent fiscal 
years, and 

• developing a budget that spends at a set 
percentage (spending rate) of this three-year 
market average. 

During the 1990s, this budgeted spending rate 
has been declining in a phased reduction, moving 
towards an informal goal of a spending rate of 

Carnegie Funds Spending Over 
Seven Years 

(Dollars in Millions) 



Carnegie Funds Spending 

Actual Market Value at 
June 30 

Actual Spending as % of 
Market Value 

Planned Spending Rate 
in Budget 

$12.4 $ 13.9 

$275.5 $304.5 



5.81% 5.76% 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 I page 75 

4.5%. For the 1999-2000 fiscal year, the rate was 
budgeted at 5.4%. While Carnegie has been 
reducing this budgeted rate by between 5 and 10 
basis points a year, there has also been continuing, 
significant growth in the size of the endowment. 
The result has been that, for the 1999-2000 fiscal 
year, the actual spending rate (the ratio of annual 
spending from the endowment to actual endow- 
ment value at the conclusion of the fiscal year in 
which the spending took place) was 4.27%. 

The table below compares the planned versus the 
actual spending rates, as well as the market value 
of the endowment from 1993-1994 to the most 
recently concluded fiscal year, 1999-2000: 

Budget and Actual Spending Rates 

Actual Spending Rate Budgeted Spending Rate 

Within Carnegie's endowment, there are a num- 
ber of "Funds" that provide support either in a 
general way or in a targeted way, with a specific, 
defined purpose. The largest of these is the 
Andrew Carnegie Fund, begun with the original 
gift of $10 million. Mr. Carnegie later made 
additional gifts totaling another $12 million 
during his lifetime. Together these gifts are now 
valued at over $392 million. 






$ 15.1 

$ 15.5 

$ 16.4 

$ 20.9 

$ 20.0 




$45 1 .6 













The following table shows the amounts in the 
principal funds within the institution's endowment 
as of June 30, 2000: 

Market value of the Principal Funds 
Within Carnegie's Endowment 

Andrew Carnegie 

Capital Campaign 

Mellon Matching 


Astronomy Funds 

Anonymous Matching 


Carnegie Futures 



Science Education Fund 


McClintock Fund 

Special Instrumentation 

Bush Bequest 

Moseley Astronomy 

Starr Fellowship 

Special Opportunities 


Lund mark 






Green Fellowship 













2,522,71 I 














1 40,448 

I 15,708 




$487, 1 9 1 ,642 



for the year ended June 30, 2000 

Financial Statement 

«* cm «i 

Independent Auditors' Report 

To the Audit Committee of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington: 

We have audited the accompanying statements of financial position of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
(Carnegie) as of June 30, 2000 and 1999, and the related statements of activities and cash flows for the years 
then ended. These financial statements are the responsibility of Carnegie's management. Our responsibility is 
to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. 

We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of 
America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about 
whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test 
basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes 
assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating 
the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our 

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial 
position of the Carnegie Institution of Washington as of June 30, 2000 and 1999, and its changes in net assets 
and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the 
United States of America. 

Our audits were made for the purpose of forming an opinion on the basic financial statements taken as a 
whole. The supplementary information included in Schedule I is presented for purposes of additional analysis 
and is not a required part of the basic financial statements. Such information has been subjected to the audit- 
ing procedures applied in the audits of the basic financial statements and, in our opinion, is fairly presented in 
all material respects in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole. 


Washington, D.C. 
October 24, 2000 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 page JJ 

Statements of Financial Position 

June 30, 2000 and 1999 
Assets 2000 


Cash and cash equivalents 
Accrued investment income 
Contributions receivable (note 2) 
Accounts receivable and other assets 
Bond proceeds held by trustee (note 6) 
Investments (note 3) 
Construction in progress (notes 4 and 5) 
Property and equipment, net (note 4) 



1 22,379 

2,300,9 1 3 

4,054, 1 97 


487, 1 9 1 ,642 





2, 1 1 9,79 1 









Liabilities and NTet Assets 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses 

Deferred revenue (note 5) 

Bonds^ payable (note 6) 

Accrued postretirement benefits (note 7) 





Total liabilities 


73, 1 85,445 

Net assets (note 8): 
Board designated: 
Invested in fixed assets, net 
Designated for managed investments 



1 ,594,787 




Temporarily restricted 
Permanently restricted 





Total net assets 


496,9 1 7,067 

Commitments and contingencies (notes 10, II, and 1 2) 
Total liabilities and net assets 




See accompanying notes to financial statements. 


page 78 I YEAR BOOK p8~yp 

Statements of Activities 

Years ended June 30, 2000 and 1 999 


Temporarily Permanently Temporarily Permanently 

Unrestricted restricted restricted Total Unrestricted restricted restricted Total 

Revenues and support: 

Grants and contracts $ 1 5,945,496 

Contributions and gifts 503,000 
Net gain (loss) on disposals 

of property (30,736) 

Other income 1 ,556,603 

3,429, 1 1 5 

15,945,496 12,013,129 
2,577 3,944,692 77,801 3,916,380 




2,0 1 3, 1 29 

1 , 1 88,846 

Net external revenue 

7,974,336 3,429, 1 1 5 

2,577 21,416,028 

3,340,334 3,916,380 1,630,265 18,886,979 

Investment income (note 3) 45,028,935 
Net assets released from 

restnctions (note 8) 4,727,863 

Required net asset transfers 

(note 9) (2,557,58 1 

2,314,107 51,931 47,394,973 45,210,087 2,027,818 56,993 47,294,: 


6,113,931 (6,113,93 

Total revenues, gains, and 
other support 

65,173,553 3,572,940 

8,8 1 1 ,00 1 











4,840,61 1 


1 ,005,455 

(169,733) 1,687,258 66,181,877 

Program and supporting services expenses: 

Terrestrial Magnetism 6,677,062 

Observatories 7,387,676 

Geophysical Laboratory 8,005, 1 44 

Embryology 6,334,585 

Plant Biology 6,082,263 

Other Programs 588,972 

Administrative and 

general expenses 3,079,5 1 3 

3,079,5 1 3 

3,40 1 ,699 

4,840,6 1 I 
1 ,005,455 


Total expenses 


38,155,215 34,947,830 


Increase (decrease) in 
net assets 

27,018,338 3,572,940 64,508 30,655,786 29,716,522 (169,733) 1,687,258 31,234,047 

Net assets at the beginning 
of the year 445,275,025 

14,002,694 37,639,348 496,917,067 415,558,503 14,172,427 35,952,090 465,683,020 

Net assets at the end 

of the year 

$472,293,363 17,575,634 37,703,856 527,572,853 445,275,025 14,002,694 37,639,348 496,917,067 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



YEAR BOOK pp—QO 1 page 


Statements of Cash 

Years ended June 30, 2000 and 1 999 



Cash flows from operating activities: 

Increase in net assets 

$ 30,655,786 

3 1 ,234,047 

Adjustments to reconcile increase in net assets to 

net cash provided by operating activities: 




Net gains on investments 



Loss (gain) on disposal of property 



Amortization of bond issuance costs and discount 



Contribution of stock 



(Increase) decrease in assets: 



(1,229,01 1) 

Accrued investment income 



Increase in liabilities: 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses 



Deferred revenues 



Accrued postretirement benefits 



Contributions and investment income restricted for 

- long-term investment 



Net cash provided by operating activities 



Cash flows from investing activities: 

Draws from bond proceeds held by trustee 

1 ,45 1 ,006 


Acquisition of property and equipment 



Construction of telescope, facilities, and equipment 



Investments purchased 



Proceeds from investments sold or matured 



Proceeds from sale of property and equipment 



Net cash used for investing activities 


(9, 1 64,982) 

Cash flows from financing activities - proceeds from contributions 

and investment income restricted for: 

Investment in endowment 



Investment in property and equipment 



Net cash provided by financing activities 



Net increase in cash and cash equivalents 



Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year 



Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year 

$ 1,401,268 


Supplementary cash flow information 

Cash paid for interest 

$ 1,562,61 1 


See accompanying notes to financial statements. 


Notes to Financial Statements 

June 30, 2000 and 1999 

(I) Organization and Summary of Significant 
Accounting Policies 


The Carnegie Institution of Washington (Carnegie) 
conducts advanced research and training in the 
sciences. It carries out its scientific work in five 
research centers located throughout the United 
States and at an observatory in Chile. The centers 
are the Departments of Embryology, Plant Biology, 
and Terrestrial Magnetism, the Geophysical 
Laboratory, and the Observatories (astronomy). 
Income from investments represents approximately 
69 percent of Carnegie's total revenues. Carnegie's 
other income is mainly from gifts and federal grants 
and contracts. 

Basis of Accounting and Presentation 

The financial statements are prepared on the accrual 
basis of accounting. Contributions and gifts rev- 
enues are classified according to the existence or 
absence of donor-imposed restrictions. Also, satis- 
faction of donor-imposed restrictions are reported as 
releases of restrictions in the statements of activities. 

Investments and Cash Equivalents 

Carnegie's debt and equity investments are reported 
at their fair values. Carnegie also reports invest- 
ments in partnerships at fair value as determined 
and reported by the general partners. All changes in 
fair value are recognized in the statements of activi- 
ties. Carnegie considers all highly liquid debt instru- 
ments purchased with remaining maturities of 
90 days or less to be cash equivalents. Money mar- 
ket and other highly liquid instruments held by 
investment managers are reported as investments. 

Income Taxes 

Carnegie is exempt from federal income tax under 
Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code 
(the Code). Accordingly, no provision for income 
taxes is reflected in the accompanying financial 

statements. Carnegie is also an educational institu- 
tion within the meaning of Section 170(b)(l)(A)(ii) 
of the Code. The Internal Revenue Service has clas- 
sified Carnegie as other than a private foundation, 
as defined in Section 509(a) of the Code. 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments 

Financial instruments of Carnegie include cash 
equivalents, receivables, investments, bond proceeds 
held by trustee, accounts and broker payables, and 
bonds payable. The fair value of investments in debt 
and equity securities is based on quoted market 
prices. The fair value of investments in limited 
partnerships is based on information provided by 
the general partners. 

The fair value of Series A bonds payable is based on 
quoted market prices. The fair value of Series B 
bonds payable is estimated to be the carrying value, 
since these bonds bear adjustable market rates. 

The fair values of cash equivalents, receivables, bond 
proceeds held by trustee, and accounts and broker 
payables approximate their carrying values based on 
their short maturities. 

Use of Estimates 

The preparation of financial statements in confor- 
mity with accounting principles generally accepted 
in the United States of America requires manage- 
ment to make estimates and assumptions that affect 
the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and 
disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the 
date of the financial statements. They also affect the 
reported amounts of revenues and expenses during 
the reporting period. Actual results could differ 
from those estimates. 

Property and Equipment 

Carnegie capitalizes at cost expenditures for land, 
buildings and leasehold improvements, telescopes, 
scientific and administrative equipment, and pro- 
jects in progress. Routine replacement, mainte- 
nance, and repairs are charged to expense. 




Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis 
over the following estimated useful lives: 

Buildings and telescopes 
Leasehold improvements 

Scientific and 
administrative equipment 


50 years 

lesser of 25 years or 

the remaining term 

of the lease 

2-10 years, based on 

scientific life of 


Contributions are classified based on the existence 
or absence of donor-imposed restrictions. 
Contributions and net assets are classified as follows: 

Unrestricted - includes all contributions 
received without donor-imposed restrictions on 
use or time. 

Temporarily restricted - includes contributions 
with donor-imposed restrictions as to purpose of 
gift or time period expended. 

Permanently restricted - generally includes 
endowment gifts in which donors stipulated that 
the corpus be invested in perpetuity. Only the 
investment income generated from endowments 
may be spent. Certain endowments require that a 
portion of the investment income be reinvested 
in perpetuity. 

Gifts of long-lived assets, such as buildings or 
equipment, are considered unrestricted when placed 
in service. Cash gifts restricted for investment in 
long-lived assets are released from restriction when 
the asset is acquired or as costs are incurred for asset 


Carnegie records revenues on grants from federal 
agencies only to the extent that reimbursable 
expenses are incurred. Accordingly, funds received 
in excess of reimbursable expenses are recorded as 
deferred revenue, and expenses in excess of reim- 
bursements are recorded as accounts receivable. 
Reimbursement of indirect costs is based upon pro- 
visional rates, which are subject to subsequent audit 

by Carnegie's federal cognizant agency, the 
National Science Foundation. 

Allocation of Costs 

The costs of providing programs and supporting 
services have been summarized in the statements of 
activities. Accordingly, certain costs have been allo- 
cated among the programs and supporting services 

(2) Contributions Receivable 

Contributions receivable representing unconditional 
promises expected to be collected are summarized as 
follows at June 30, 2000 and 1999: 

Years ending June 30, 


















2006 and later 




2,1 19,791 

Less discount to 

present vali 

je (131,814) 


$2,300,913 2,119,791 

Pledges receivable as of June 30, 2000, were dis- 
counted using the 10-year U.S. Treasury rate, which 
was 6.08 percent. 

(3) Investments 

At June 30, 2000 and 1999, investments at fair value 
consisted of the following: 



Time deposits and money 

market funds $ 15,508,894 129,474,938 

Debt mutual funds 2,762,469 4,707,63 1 

Debt securities I 1 3,3 1 8,084 8,385, 1 2 1 

Equity securities 1 58,985,492 1 49,946, 1 98 

Real estate partnerships 55,524,337 53,058,884 

Limited partnerships 1 4 1 ,092,366 I I 6,472,832 

$487,191,642 462,045,604 


Investment income for the years ended June 30, 
2000 and 1999, consisted of the following: 



Interest and dividends $ 1 2,442,82 1 I 1 ,484,577 

Net realized gains 41,174,031 24,124,433 

Net unrealized (losses) gains (5,027,567) I 3,067,554 
Less - investment 

management expenses (1,1 94,3 12) ( 1 ,38 1 ,666) 

$47,394,973 47,294,898 

As of June 30, 2000, the fair value for approximately 
$179 million of Carnegie's $197 million of real 
estate and limited partnership investments has been 
estimated by the general partners in the absence of 
readily ascertainable market values. However, these 
estimated fair values may differ from the values that 
would have been used had a ready market existed. 

(4) Property and Equipment 

At June 30, 2000 and 1999, property and equipment 
placed in service consisted of the following: 



Buildings and 




Scientific equipment 






Administrative equipment 











Less accumulated 


(28,298,624) (26,856,323) 

$46,310,015 45,333,399 

At June 30, 2000 and 1999, construction in progress 
consisted of the following: 





Scientific equipment 

$62,237,190 50,731,430 

352,271 802,523 

4,830,219 2,522, 

$67,419,680 54,056,641 

At June 30, 2000 and 1999, approximately $71 mil- 
lion and $59 million, respectively, of construction 
in progress and other property, net of accumulated 
depreciation, was located in Las Campanas, Chile. 
During 2000 and 1999, Carnegie capitalized inter- 
est costs (net of interest earned of $49,000 and 
$245,000, respectively) of approximately $1,514,000 
and $1,229,000, respectively, as construction 
in progress. 

(5) Magellan Consortium 

During the year ended June 30, 1998, Carnegie 
entered into an agreement (Magellan Agreement) 
with four universities establishing a consortium to 
build and operate the Magellan telescopes. The two 
Magellan telescopes are currently under construc- 
tion on Manqui Peak, Las Campanas in Chile. The 
total construction costs of the two telescopes is 
expected to be approximately $72 million and the 
telescopes will be recorded as assets by Carnegie. 
Title to the Magellan facilities is held by Carnegie. 
As of June 30, 2000, construction in progress of 
$62,237,190 related to the Magellan project. 

The university members of the consortium, by con- 
tribution to the construction and operating costs of 
Magellan, acquire rights of access and oversight as 
described in the Magellan Agreement. Total contri- 
butions by the university members for construction 
are expected to be $36 million, 50 percent of the 
total expected costs and these monies are being 
used by Carnegie to finance part of the Magellan 
Telescopes' construction costs. As of June 30, 2000 
and 1999, the university members had contributed 
$32,717,849 and $24,910,264, respectively, which is 
included in deferred revenue in the accompanying 
statements of financial position. The deferred 
revenue will be recognized ratably as income over 
the estimated useful lives of the telescopes. 


YEAR BOOK pp—QO j page 

(6) Bonds Payable 

On November 1, 1993, Carnegie issued $17.5 
million each of secured Series A and Series B 
California Educational Facilities Authority Revenue 
tax-exempt bonds. Bond proceeds are used to 
finance the Magellan telescope project and the 
renovation of the facilities of the Observatories at 
Pasadena. The balances outstanding at June 30, 
2000 and 1999, on the Series A issue totaled 
$17,425,757 and $17,402,913, respectively, and 
on the Series B issue totaled $17,454,433 and 
$17,440,412, respectively. The balances outstanding 
are net of unamortized bond issue costs and bond 
discount. Bond proceeds held by the trustee and 
unexpended at June 30, 2000 and 1999, totaled 
$214,384 and $1,665,390, respectively. 

Series A bonds bear interest at 5.6 percent payable 
in arrears semiannually on each April 1 and 
October 1 and upon maturity on October 1, 2023. 
Series B bonds bear interest at variable money mar- 
ket rates (ranging from 3.4 percent to 4.1 percent at 
June 30, 2000) in effect from time to time, up to a 
maximum of 12 percent over the applicable money 
market rate period of between one and 270 days and 
have a stated maturity of October 1, 2023. At the 
end of each money market rate period, Series B 
bondholders are required to offer the bonds for 
repurchase at the applicable money market rate. 
If repurchased, the Series B bonds would be resold 
at the current applicable money market rate and for 
a new rate period. 

Carnegie is not required to repay the Series A and B 
bonds until the October 1, 2023, maturity date, and 
Carnegie has the intent and the ability to effect the 
purchase and resale of the Series B bonds through a 
tender agent; therefore all bonds payable are classi- 
fied as long term. Sinking fund redemptions begin 
in 2019 in installments for both series. The fair 
value of Series A bonds payable at June 30, 2000 
and 1999, based on quoted market prices is esti- 
mated at $17,414,000 and $18,043,000, respec- 
tively. The fair value of Series B bonds payable at 
June 30, 2000 and 1999, is estimated to approxi- 
mate carrying value as the mandatory tender dates 
on which the bonds are repriced are generally within 
three months of year end. 

(7) Employee Benefit Plans 

Retirement Plan 

Carnegie has a noncontributory, defined contribu- 
tion, money-purchase retirement plan in which all 
United States personnel are eligible to participate. 
After one year's participation, an individual's bene- 
fits are fully vested. The Plan has been funded 
through individually owned annuities issued by 
Teachers' Insurance and Annuity Association 
(TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund 
(CREF). Total contributions made by Carnegie 
totaled approximately $2,195,000 and $2,133,000 
for the years ended June 30, 2000 and 1999, 

Postretirement Benefits Plan 

Carnegie provides postretirement medical benefits 
to all employees who retire after age 55 and have at 
least ten years of service. Cash payments made by 
Carnegie for these benefits totaled approximately 
$382,000 and $318,000 for the years ended June 30, 
2000 and 1999, respectively. 

The expense for postretirement benefits for the 
years ended June 30, 2000 and 1999, consists of 
the following: 



Service cost - benefits earned 

during the year 



Interest cost on projected 

benefit obligation 



Amortization of gain 



Accrued postretirement 

benefit cost 



The 2000 postretirement benefits expense was 
approximately $353,000 more than the cash expense 
of $382,000, and the 1999 postretirement benefits 
expense was approximately $451,000 more than 
the cash expense of $318,000. The postretirement 
benefits expense was allocated among program and 
supporting services expenses in the statements of 


page 84 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

The reconciliation of the Plan's funded status to 
amounts recognized in the financial statements at 
June 30, 2000 and 1999 follows: 



Change in benefit obligation: 
Benefit obligation at 

beginning of year $ 

Service cost 
Interest cost 
Actuarial gain 
Benefits paid 

7,848,000 8,041,000 

250,000 283,000 

574,000 531,000 

(1,684,000) (689,000) 

(382,000) (3 1 8,000) 

Benefit obligation at 
end of year 

6,606,000 7,848,000 

Change in plan assets: 
Fair value of plan assets 

at beginning of year 
Actual return on plan assets 
Contribution to plan 382,000 

Benefits paid (382,000) 

3 1 8,000 
(3 1 8,000) 

Fair value of plan 
end of year 

assets at 

— — 

Funded status 

(6,606,000) (7,848,000) 

Unrecognized net 
actuarial gain 

(3,715,000) (2,120,000) 

Accrued benefit cost $( 1 0,32 1 ,000) (9,968,000) 

The present value of the benefit obligation as of 
June 30, 2000, was determined using an assumed 
health care cost trend rate of 8.7 percent and an 
assumed discount rate of 8.0 percent. The present 
value of the benefit obligation as of June 30, 1999, 
was determined using an assumed health care cost 
trend rate of 9.0 percent and an assumed discount 
rate of 7.5 percent. Carnegie's policy is to fund 
postretirement benefits as claims and administrative 
fees are paid. 

For measurement purposes, a 8.7 percent annual 
rate of increase in the per capita cost of covered 
health care benefits was assumed for 2000; the rate 
was assumed to decrease gradually to 5.5 percent in 
11 years and remain at that level thereafter. The 
health care cost trend rate assumption has a signifi- 

cant effect on the amounts reported. A one-percent- 
age change in assumed annual health care cost trend 
rate would have the following effects: 

One-percentage One-percentage 
point increase point decrease 

Effect on total of 
service and interest 
cost components 



Effect on 
benefit obligation 

[8) Net Assets 



At June 30, 2000 and 1999, temporarily restricted 
net assets were available to support the following 
donor-restricted purposes: 



Specific research 

Equipment acquisition 

and construction 

$1 1,845,001 10,479,226 

5,730,633 3,523,468 

$17,575,634 14,002,694 

At June 30, 2000 and 1999, permanently restricted 
net assets consisted of permanent endowments, the 
income from which is available to support the fol- 
lowing donor-restricted purposes: 



Specific research 

Equipment acquisition 

and construction 
General support 

(Carnegie endowment) 22,000,000 22,000,000 

$14,499,137 14,434,629 
1,204,719 1,204,719 

$37,703,856 37,639,348 



YEAR BOOK pp—QO page 

During 2000 and 1999, Carnegie met 
donor-imposed requirements on certain gifts and, 
therefore, released temporarily restricted net assets 
as follows: 



Specific research programs $2,608,27 1 2,022,748 
Equipment acquisition and 
construction 2,119,592 4,091,183 

$4,727,863 6,113,931 

(9) Required Net Asset Transfers 

During 2000, it was discovered that certain tem- 
porarily restricted net assets were released when 
amounts were spent on purposes other than those 
for which they were restricted. An amount of 
$2,557,581 was reclassified to temporarily restricted 
net assets to be used for equipment acquisition 
and construction. 

(10) Federal Grants and Contracts 

Costs charged to the federal government under 
cost-reimbursement grants and contracts are subject 
to government audit. Therefore, all such costs are 
subject to adjustment. Management believes that 
adjustments, if any, would not have a significant 
effect on the financial statements. 

(IS) Commitments 

In 1997, Carnegie entered into a contract with the 
University of Arizona for the construction of the 
primary mirror and support system for the second 
telescope in the Magellan project. The amount of 
the contract is approximately $9,700,000 of which 
approximately $2,496,000 had not been incurred at 
June 30, 2000. Carnegie had previously entered into 
an agreement with the University of Arizona for the 
primary mirror and support system for the first tele- 
scope and had outstanding commitments of approx- 
imately $302,000 at June 30, 2000. Carnegie also 
has other contracts relating to the construction of 
Magellan with outstanding commitments totaling 
approximately $579,000. 

Carnegie has outstanding commitments to invest 
approximately $54 million in limited partnerships. 

( 1 2) Lease Arrangements 

Carnegie leases a portion of the land it owns in Las 
Campanas, Chile to other organizations. These 
organizations have built and operate telescopes on 
the land. Most of the lease arrangements are not 
specific and some are at no-cost to the other organi- 
zations. One of the lease arrangements is noncance- 
lable and has annual future rents of $120,000 
through fiscal year 2001. For the no-cost leases, 
the value of the leases could not be determined 
and is not considered significant, and, accordingly, 
contributions have not been recorded in the finan- 
cial statements. 

Carnegie also leases a portion of one of its laborato- 
ries to another organization for an indefinite term. 
Rents to be received under the agreement are 
approximately $375,000 annually, adjusted for 
CPI increases. 

Carnegie leases land and buildings. The monetary 
terms of the leases are considerably below fair value, 
however, these terms were developed considering 
other non-monetary transactions between Carnegie 
and the lessors. The substance of the transactions 
indicates arms-length terms between Carnegie and 
the lessors. The monetary value of the leases could 
not be determined, and has not been recorded in the 
financial statements. 


YEAR BOOK pp~00 

Schedules of Expenses 

Schedule 1 

Years ended June 30, 1 999 and 




Federal and 



Federal and 


Personnel costs: 


$1 1,980,869 


1 6,060,444 

1 1,268,614 



Fringe benefits and payroll taxes 







Total personnel costs 



21,01 1,045 


4,040,24 1 


Fellowship grants and awards 

1 ,500,720 













General expenses: 

Educational and research supplies 







Building maintenance and operation 



2,71 1,084 




Travel and meetings 










1 18,167 

















209,46 1 

Books and subscriptions 




264,49 1 



Administrative and general 

1 70,443 




163,1 10 


Printing and copying 







Shipping and postage 

1 82,407 



1 34,230 



Insurance, taxes and professional fees 


1 13,738 



1 64,278 









Fund-raising expense 







Total general expenses 



1 3,420,087 




Total direct costs 


1 2, 1 4 1 ,045 





Indirect costs - grants 


3,804,45 1 





Total costs 

23,91 1,725 






Capitalized scientific 
equipment funded by 
Federal and private grants 

( 1 ,702,006) ( 1 ,702,006) 

Total expenses 

$23,911,725 14,243,490 38,155,215 22,934,701 

12,013,129 34,947,830 

Index of Names 

Abelson, Philip K, 4, 5, 10, 1 1,72 

Ding, Yang, 32 

Hearst, William R III, 5, 72 

Adler, Jennifer, 32 

Doggett, Thomas C, 32, 68 

Heckert, Richard E„ 5 

Alcazar, Rosa, 47 

Domi'nguez, Jaime, 68 

Helwig, Holger, 32 

Aldnch, L. Thomas, 68 

Doyle, Olivia, 47 

Hemley, Russell J., 32 

Alexander, 'Cone! M. O'D., 64, 68 

Dressier, Alan, 54, 56 

Hewlett, William R, 5 

Andre, Aurelie, 40 

Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela, 47 

Ho, Luis, 56 

Armstrong, Lora, 32 

Hoffman, Laura, 40 

Ash, Richard D., 32, 68 

Ebert, James D., 4, 5, 10, 72 

Hooft, Emilie E. E., 68 

Aurnou, Jonathan M., 68 

Ehrhardt, David, 37, 40 

Hu, Jingzhu, 32 

Elkins, Lynne J., 68 

Huang, Dongli, 47 

Badro, James, 32 

Elrad, Dafna, 40 

Huntress, Garret W., 32 

Baird, Euan, 5, 72 

Eremets, Mikhail, 32 

Huntress, Wesley T, Jr., 5, 8, 1 6, 32 

Bauer, Jacob A., 68 

Ernst, W. Gar/, 5, 72 

Director's report, 25-30 

Bebie, Joakim, 32, 68 

Ewing, Robert, 40 

Beckett, Martin, 56 

Im, Chung-Soon, 40 

Belin, Daniel N„ 5, 15,72 

Faber, Sandra M., 5, 72 

Inaba, Satoshi, 68 

Bell, Peter M„ 32 

Fan, Chen-Ming, 47 

Inamori, Kazuo, 5, 72 

Bellini, Michel, 47 

Farber, Steve, 47 

Irvine, Gordon J., 68 

Benton, Laurie D., 68 

Fassett, Caleb l„ 68 

Irvine, T. Neil, 32 

Bergmann, Dominique, 40 

Fei, Yingwei, 17, 32 

Bernstein, Rebecca, 56 

Ferguson, Bruce W., 5, 72 

James, David E„ 65, 68 

Berry, Joseph A„ 40 

Field, Christopher B., 40 

Janney, Philip E., 68 

Bertka, Constance, 32 

Riley, Timothy R, 32 

Japel, Stefanie L, 32 

Bhaya, Devaki, 38, 40 

Finkelstein, David, 40 

Jiao, Wenjie, 32, 68 

Bigelow, Bruce, 56 

Fire, Andrew Z, 45, 47 

Johns, Matt, 52, 56 

Bjorkman, Olle E., 40 

Fisher, Shannon, 47 

Johnson, Jennifer, 56 

Boctor, Nabil Z., 32 

Fogel, Marilyn L, 29, 32 

Johnson, Suzanne Nora, 5, 72 

Bonetta, Dano, 40 

Foo, Jasmine Y., 68 

Borjigin.'Jimo, 47 

Fouch, Matthew J., 32, 68 

Kaduk, J org, 40 

Boss, Alan P., 16,63,68 

Frantz, John D„ 29, 32 

Kai, Toshie, 47 

Boyce, Charles Kevin, 32, 68 

Freed, Andrew M., 68 

Kehm, Karl, 68 

Boyd, Francis R., Jr., 32 

Freedman, Wendy, 1 6, 56 

Kelly, Patrick L, 17,68 

Bradshaw, Anna, 32 

Fricke, Henry G, 32 

Kelly, William, 47 

Brandt, Kirsten A., 68 

Frydman, Horacio, 47 

Kelson, Daniel D., 17,68 

Bnggs, Winslow R, 37, 38, 40 

Fu, Huaxiang, 32 

Khatry, Deepak, 40 

Brown, Donald D., 44, 47 

Koch-Muller, Monica, 32 

Brown, Louis, 64, 68 

Galaz, Gaspar, 56 

Konzett, Jurgen, 32 

Burley, Greg, 56 

Gall, Joseph G., 47 

Kortenkamp, Stephen J., 68 

Bunnell, Jocelyn Bell, 68 

Galloway, Greg, 40 

Koshland, Douglas E„ 17,46,47 

Butler, R Paul, 62, 68 

Garvey, Susanne, 5, 72 

Kostas, Steve, 47 

Buttitta, Laura, 47 

Gellert, Michael E., 5, 72 
Gillmor, Stewart, 40 

Kunkel, William, 56 

Cao, Kan, 45, 47 

Gilpin, Laura A., 32 

Laloraya, Shika, 47 

Carlson, Richard W„ 63, 64, 68 

Goelet, Robert G, 5, 72 

Laubach, Gerald D„ 5, 72 

Chapman, Scott, 56 

Golden, William T, 5, 72 

Lavoie, Brigitte, 47 

Chen, Alice, 47 

Gollub, Jeremy, 40 

Lee, Jean N„ 32, 68 

Chen, Hsiao Wen, 56 

Goncharov, Alexander, 32 

Li.Jie, 32, 68 

Chick, Kenneth M., 68 

Gore, Jane, 68 

Liang, Jennifer, 47 

Christie, John Mackie, 40 

Graham, John A., 17, 68 

Linde, Alan T, 60, 61,66, 68 

Cifuentes, Ines Lucia, 68, 72 

Gramsch, Stephen A., 32 

Liu, Kelly, 47 

Director's report, 2 1 -23 

Greenewalt, David, 5, 72 

Liu, Ying, 47 

Cody, George D„ 1 3, 32 

Gregoryanz, Eugene A., 32 

Liu, Zhen-Xian, 32 

Cohen, Ronald E., 32 

Grieder, Nicole, 47 

Lively, John J„ 5, 72 

Coleman, William T., Jr., 5, 72 

Grossman, Arthur R„ 38, 40 

Lizarraga, Sofia, 47 

Colman, Albert, 32 

Grosso, Michelle, 32 

Lucier, Amie, 32 

Con, Tom, 5, 72 

Gulseren, Oguz, 32 

Lukowitz, Wolfgang, 40 

Cox, Rachel, 47 

Gunawardane, Ru, 47 

Lund, Chris, 40 

Crawford, John R, 5, 72 

Cutler, Sean, 40 

Halpern, Mamie, 44, 47 

Ma, Yanzhang, 32 

Haltiwanger, Julia F., 68 

Mac Gregor, Ian D., 68 

Das, Biswajit, 47 

Handler, Monica R„ 68 

Macomber, John D„ 5, 72 

David, Edward E„ Jr., 5 

Handwerger, Korie, 47 

Madduri, Achintya, 32 

de Araujo, Ana Lucia Novaes, 68 

Hashimoto, Yashuro, 56 

Madore, Barry, 56 

De Boer, Gert, 40 

Haskins, Car/I P., 4, 5, 9 

Mao, Ho-kwang, 32 

de Cuevas, Maggie, 47 

Haun, Erik H„ 16,63,64,68 

Marques, Gregory, 47 

Dera, Przemyslaw, 32 

Hausermann, Daniel, 32 

Marsh-Armstrong, Nick, 47 

Diebold.John, 5, 72 

Hazen, Robert M., 32 

Marton, Frederic C, 32 


page 88 I YEAR BOOK pp~00 

Index of Names 

Marzke, Ron, 56 
Matunis, Erika, 43, 47 
McAdam, Amy, 32 
McCarthy, Matthew D., 32 
McCarthy, Patrick, 54, 56 
McGovern, Patrick J., 68 
McKnight, Steven L, 5, 15, 72 
McMurtry, Burton J., 5, 72 
McWilliam, Andrew, 53, 56 
Mead, Jaylee, 5, 72 
Megee, Paul, 47 
Menzies, Andrew H., 68 
Merkel, Sebastien, 32 
Meserve, Richard A., 5, 72 
Mical, Timothy, 47 
Milutinovich, Mark, 47 
Minank, William G, 32, 68 
Mueller, Kaisa E., 68 
Mukherjee, Sonali, 32 
Mulchaey, John, 56 
Murphy, David, 56 
Murphy, Terence, 47 
Mysen, Bjorn O., 32 

Newmark, Phil, 45, 47 
Nguuri, Teresia K., 68 
Nguyen, Lan-Anh Ngoc, 68 
Niu, Fenglin, 68 

Oemler, Augustus, Jr., 5, 8, 56 

Director's report, 5 1 -54 
Olney, Margaret, 40 

Parmenter, Dana L, 40 
Parrish, Susan, 47 
Pepling, Melissa, 47 
Perkins, Richard S., 5 
Persson, Eric, 54, 56 
Petrone, Chiara M.. 68 
Phillips, Mark, 56 
Pietruszka, Aaron J., 68 
Polsenberg, Johanna, 40 
Press, Frank, 5, 1 6, 72 
Preston, George, 14, 53 
Prewitt, Charles T„ 32 
Prochaska, Jason, 53, 56 

Ramonell, Katrina, 40 
Rauch, Michael, 53, 56 
Regan, Michael W., 68 
Rhee, Seung Y„ 15,39,40 
Ribas-Carbo, Miguel, 40 
Richmond, Todd, 40 
Rillig, Matthias, 40 
Roth, Miguel, 8, 56 
Rubin, Vera C, 68 
Rubinstein, Amy, 47 
Rumble, Douglas III, 32 
Rutter, William J., 5, 16,72 

Sacks, I. Selwyn, 60, 61,66, 68 
Saghi-Szabo, Gotthard, 32, 63 
Sakamoto, Koji, 40 
Sanchez Alvarado, Alejandro, 45, 47 

Scheible, Wolf Ruediger, 40 

Schiff, Celine, 40 

Schmerr, Nick, 32 

Schreiber, Alex, 47 

Schweizer, Francois, 54, 56, 68 

Schwoerer-Bohning, Markus, 32 

Scott, James, 32 

Seamans, Robert C, Jr., 5 

Searle, Leonard, 56 

Sedbrook, John, 40 

Sharma, Anurag, 32 

Shaw, Rebecca, 40 

Shectman, Stephen, 52, 53, 56, 62 

Shieh, Sean, 32 

Shirey, Steven B., 68 

Shu, Jmfu, 32 

Silver, Paul G., 1 6, 68 

Singer, Maxine Frank, 5, 8, 1 6, 52, 72 

President's commentary, 7- 1 3 

Publications of, 73 
Solomon, Sean C, 5, 8, 1 6, 68 

Director's report, 6 1 -67 
Somayazulu, Maddury S., 32 
Somerville, Christopher R„ 5, 8, 39, 40 

Director's report, 37-39 
Somerville, Shauna C, 39, 40 
Spradling, Allan C, 5, 8, 47 

Director's report, 43-46 
Stanton, Frank, 5 
Steele, Kisha I., 68 
Still, Chris, 40 
Stolbov, Sergey, 32 
Stone, Christopher T. S., 5, 72 
Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa, 56 
Strode, Sarah, 32 
Struzhkin, Viktor, 32 
Sutin, Brian, 56 
Swaters, Robert A., 68 
Swensen, David F„ 5, 1 2, 72 

Teece, Mark A., 32 

Tera, Fouad, 68 

Thayer, Susan S., 40 

Thompson, Ian, 53, 56 

Timmons, Lisa, 45, 47 

Townes, Charles H., 5 

Trager, Scott, 56 

Tschauner, Oliver, 32 

Tu, Chao-Jung, 40 

Tulin, Alexei, 47 

Turner, William I. M., Jr., 5, 72 

Urban, Thomas N., 5, 72 

van Waasbergen, Lori, 40 
Vanhala, Ham A. T, 68 
Virgo, David, 15, 32 
Vogel, John, 40 

Wang, Zengfeng, 47 
Webb, Susan J„ 68 
Weinberg, Sidney J., Jr., 5, 72 
Weiner, Ben, 56 
Wen, Lianxing, 68 

Wetherill, George W„ 1 6, 68 
Weymann, Ray, 14,53, 56 
Wiese, Christiane, 47 
Wilde, Andrew, 47 
Wilhelm, Jim, 15,45,47 
Wooller, Matthew, 32 
Wu, Shu-Hsing, 40 
Wu, Zheng'an, 47 

Xie, Ting, 47 
Xu,Ji-an, 32 

Yan, Lin, 56 
Yang, Hexiong, 32 
Yanowitz, Judith, 47 
Yoder, Hatten S„ Jr., 17,32 

Zavaleta, Erika, 40 

Zheng, Yixian, 17,45,46,47 

Ziegler, Susan, 32 




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